CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL SECURITY AND INTEGRATION IN CAMEROON: THE ROLE OF STATE AND NON-STATE ACTORS
Keywords:Nation-Building and National Security, violent non-state actors, Threat
Cameroon can be considered as a valuable case in the context of analysis of threats to national security. The evolving internal socio-political context coupled with increasing incidence of insecurity by private actors who possess means of violence point to the multiple crisis in the country. The aim of this paper is to address the political, economic and social problems that impends and challenges the national security and the form of the state. The question therefore is: what is the impact of non-state actors in Cameroon state building and national security? The following hypothesis guided the study; the role of non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security of Cameroon and, the national integration as a stake to national unity to the current conflict situation in Cameroon. Theoretically, we draw from the functionalist ideal of national integration theory since it focuses on the heterogeneous nature of a society and the need to turn it into a homogeneous society. Empirically, we use a mixed multi-method approach with both quantitative and qualitative methods and Multistage sampling techniques. The period of analysis includes eight months, from February to October 2022. The paper observed that the threat of violence extremism and radicalization, nation building and national integration has direct impact on the Cameroon defense policy. The paper recommended that effective nation building should be by empowering the population with a sense of shared purposes, united and resilient in facing common threats to the nation. This can be done through the use of Political power to influence decisions, the exercise of diplomacy to have partners. Also, to boost the economic power in order to facilitate cooperation, and the use of military force to maintain rules of law.
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