Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development <p><strong>Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development </strong>is a Bi-annual double-blind peer-reviewed and research driven journal devoted to providing intellectual platform for the dissemination of empirical and critical research in the areas of Political Science, Political Theory, Political Economy, Development Studies, Comparative Politics, Public Policy, International Relations, Security and Strategic Studies and other related areas. The Journal is a Publication of the Department of Political Science, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> en-US Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development 2756-6668 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> THE INTERCONNECTIVITY AMONG TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS AS SOURCE OF UNENDING GLOBAL INSECURITY <p><em>The issue of Al Qaeda, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Boko Haram insurgency have become monster that threaten global peace and security in contemporary times. Just as terrorism and terrorist acts have continued to wax stronger over the years, terrorist organisations are intensifying their lethal attacks worldwide through alliances and collaborative efforts. This paper investigated the interconnectivity among terrorist organisations with a view to unraveling whether such is the source of unending global insecurity or not. It adopted a descriptive research method, while data was obtained through secondary sources of data collection and alliance theory was used to explain the discourse. The paper observed that terrorist organisations, which abound in large number, usually connect with other stronger organisations with similar radical ideological orientation, to access fund, equipment, logistics and share information. It revealed that the interconnectivity amongst terrorist organisations remains a significant source of unending global insecurity besides, among others, the doggedness of their leadership. It concluded that the world will know no peace and there will be no end to terrorist attacks until terrorist organisations are dismantled or their strength fiercely weakened. It recommended that state actors such as leadership of nations and international organisations should join forces together, and collaborate in other spheres to intensify attacks on terrorist organisations and their financiers, while world bodies like the United Nations should place heavy sanctions on them and their collaborators. Also, the bank accounts of these organisations and their cronies should be frozen and taken over by world bodies in order to weaken their capacity to wreak havoc on mankind. </em></p> ROSENJE Musharafa Olapeju OMOJOWO Sunday Toyin Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 14 14 AN APPRAISAL OF THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDPS) IN BENUE STATE, NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA, 2015-2022 <p><em>The paper appraised the management of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Benue state of north-central Nigeria from 2015 to 2022. The paper specifically sought to ascertain the causes of internal displacement of persons in Benue state, identify the challenges facing the government in its efforts to manage IDPs, and recommend possible ways of overcoming the challenges of managing IDPs in the state. To achieve these objectives, the paper adopts the eclectic approach anchored on Emergency Management Theory and Human Security Theory. The paper generated data using primary method through questionnaire and secondary method through books, journals and internet materials. Three Local Government Areas (LGAs), namely Agatu, Kwande and Makurdi were selected using purposive sampling technique while the exact sample size of 384 respondents was determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) sampling table. Data generated from the field survey were presented in tables and descriptively analyzed. The paper found that the growing number of IDPs in the state is as a result of the incessant violent conflicts between nomadic cattle herders and sedentary crop farmers. The paper equally found that government’s efforts in managing IDPs have not produced the desired results because of inadequate funding and diversion of relief materials meant for IDPs by some corrupt government officials. The paper recommends that government should increase its funding of the IDPs and also ensure that distribution of relief materials meant for the IDPs are properly monitored to guard against diversion by corrupt government officials.</em></p> Janet Eloho OMORAKA Augustine Ogbaji OGOH YUSUFU Ahmed Audu Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 14 14 THE THOMAS KEMPE PHENOMENON AND PUBLIC POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA <p><em>In Irish myth, Thomas Kempe is a mischievous ghost who sets homes in disarray leaving the inhabitants blaming each other. At the end of the day, no one takes responsibility for all that goes wrong. This is the problem of public policy implementation in Nigerian where public officers are seldom held accountable for policy failures that have thus become regular occurrences. Unlike in the Kempe folklore, ghosts are not responsible for these policy lapses in Nigeria, but a lack of commitment toward the common good by public servants. How can this trend be turned around for public sector effectiveness? While it is acknowledged that formalism, clientelism, ethnicity and similar ills contribute to the lethargy of public policy implementation, this study advocates that sanctions should be firmly and appropriately utilized to address this deficit. This study therefore recommends the effective use of sanctions and reward within the public service, as studies have shown that this encourages hard work and builds a merit-oriented system. The methodology for this study consists of the ex-post-facto for the research design, secondary sources for the collection of data, and thematic and social analysis, as the adopted research analyses. </em></p> Jude Cocodia Kelechi Cocodia Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 16 16 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF KIDNAPPING FOR RANSOM AS A SOURCE OF TERRORISM FINANCING IN NIGERIA <p><em>Kidnapping for ransom started in Niger-Delta and South-Eastern region of Nigeria, the act continues to grow and was extended to the Northern region; the perpetrators keep on getting stronger every day, operating with more sophisticated weapons, citizens especially in the north are always been disturbed by the terrorist groups, they often strike against the citizens at will, without any form of resistance from the state security agencies, this is because the state security architecture is overwhelmed. Most parts of the country are no longer safe, and this may likely attract </em><em>international sanctions that would impair the image of the country. Thus, this paper used crime causation theory to assessed the role of kidnapping for ransom as a source of terrorism financing in Nigeria, we used information from literature and records from reliable media sources to examine how lucrative the act is and&nbsp; explained the reason for the persistent growing of the act. We found out that kidnapping for ransom is extraordinary lucrative enterprise, and this serves as the reason behind the persistent growing of the act, we also found out that the act is strongly connected to terrorism financing, as it is stated to be second, after direct state sponsorship. However, we recommended ef</em><em>fective enforcement of the legislation that prohibit paying ransom, government efforts that will give family of victims relief and hope for reuniting with their loved ones, adequate public relations with security operatives and engaging the youths with empowerment for self-reliance as a solutions to the menace.</em></p> Urwah Adam Suleiman Usman Rabiu Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 9 9 EFFECTS OF COVID 19 PALLIATIVE ON THE VULNERABLE DURING THE LOCK DOWN IN NIGERIA <p><em>The study examines the effects of Covid 19 palliative on the vulnerable during the lockdown in Nigeria. The study specifically aimed to explore factors that made COVID-19 a threat to vulnerable people in Nigeria. It also aimed to critically consider the benefits of COVID-19 palliatives to vulnerable people in Nigeria. The study adopted the prospect theory approach as its theoretical framework. The prospect approach offered an explanation regarding human relations and decision-making during risk and uncertainty situations. The study was essentially a qualitative one and secondary data was used to generate relevant information. A critical method was also employed. The results from the study indicated that the gap in infrastructure delivery stood out to worsen the COVID-19 crisis among vulnerable people in Nigeria. The results also revealed the insincerity of political leaders who tend to politicize COVID-19 palliative supports to their own advantage and at the expense of vulnerable people. The study concluded that COVID-19 palliatives tended to develop the political elites to the detriment of the vulnerable people who were the target. To address this situation, the political elites in Nigeria need to focus on the well-being of the citizens rather than their own private pockets. </em><em>It was therefore recommended that Nigeria’s health care system should focus on maintaining existing structures rather than place emphasis on building new structures, the vulnerable citizens should develop an interest in backyard gardening to provide additional nutrients needed to meet their daily dietary needs to </em><em>reduce the overdependence on government.</em></p> OLOWOKERE ADESOLA IBIJOKE Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 9 9 THE CHALLENGES OF CORRUPTION ON SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION <p><em>There is no gainsaying that service delivery in the Nigerian local government administration has suffered serious setback because of the phenomenon of corruption. No doubt, corruption has ravaged local government system in Nigeria and has denied the third tier of government any meaningful development. This paper is however, aimed at examining the effect of corruption on service delivery on local government administration in Nigeria. The paper employs the use of secondary sources of data in its analysis and thereby reveals that, the challenges pose by corruption has made the people to lose hope and confidence in the Nigerian local government system. It concludes that corruption has not only weakened service delivery of the local government administration in Nigeria, it has also conditioned the minds of the locals not to believe in the system. The paper recommends that anti-corruption agencies should zoom their search light on the Nigerian local government officials owing to the fact that the level of corruption at that level is alarming. It strongly recommends further that the federal government should ensure the autonomy of local government is granted and enforced to allow the local governments direct access to the funds meant for the development of the local areas which it is hoped will enhance service delivery in the local government system.</em></p> Abdulrahman Adamu Isah Balarabe Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 8 8 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CHALLENGES OF HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN NIGERIA AND THE STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING THEM <p><em>Human Resources are the most valuable assets of any nation. With the machines, materials, land and money, nothing gets done without human efforts. The potentials of human efforts are simply what is termed human capital. These are the set of people that an organisation hires to achieve her set goals and objectives. Human capital investment is thus, the systematic acquisition of relevant skills, knowledge and expertise in other to be able to function effectively, efficiently and optimally in any area of endeavour. However, certain challenges have continued to bedevil purposeful investment in this all important resource. This includes but not limited to Nigerian institutional inadequacies, and low level of individual interest. Strategies to surmount these challenges are the crux of this paper.</em> <em>The paper noted that, for Nigeria to compete favourably among the comity of nations, high premium should be given to purposeful and result-driven investment in human capital. This is so because a major finding of the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between human capital investment and the level of a country’s development. The paper therefore recommend&nbsp; that Nigerian government should take education more seriously while organizations, both&nbsp; public and private are enjoined to note that knowledge and its investment should be seen to be sacrosanct.</em></p> David Kumije Rosemary Nneoma Barnabas Ikani Achimugu Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 10 10 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE TO FARMER-HERDER CONFLICT IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA: A STUDY OF BENUE AND NASARAWA STATES, 2012-2016 <p><em>Farmers and Pastoralists are two principal land resource users primarily involved in crop production and animal husbandry respectively. Historically, the two groups had hitherto co-existed in all manners of complementarities. However, effects of environmental degradation had forced the pastoralists out of their usual traditional ecological zones, migrating south-ward to the North-Central and Southern Nigeria in search of greener pasture. This phenomenon, combined with other factors such as population increase ignited a destructive competition for land resources, leading to the present perennial clashes between the two warring groups. Thus, the Nigerian government has severally been accused of being tepid, lackadaisical and indifference in the response to the conflict. Hence, this study assesses the level of the responses by the Nigerian government to the conflict in Benue and Nasarawa states in North-Central Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted with 350 questionnaires randomly administered to respondents in the purposively selected affected communities. In addition, Key Informant Interview and Focus Group Discussion techniques were equally employed to obtain empirical information. The secondary data was sourced from array of published documents including Journals, reports and newspapers. The quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used to analyze the data obtained from the field. The findings reveal that the conflict has not been adequately responded to, by the Government. The study therefore recommends settlement schemes (grazing reserves/ranches) as viable options for a more sustainable solution to the conflict.&nbsp; </em></p> Ahmed Usman Ahmed Tijjani Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 3 3 10 10 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CATTLE RUSTLING AND BANDITRY IN ZAMFARA STATE, NORTH-WESTERN NIGERIA <p>Cattle rustling and Banditry has become major threat to security and social life in Nigeria especially the northwest region, with far reaching political, economic, and social consequences. All efforts to end this security menace had remained fruitless as cattle rustling and banditry continue to thrive with impunity in the country. The main objective of the study is to assess the causes and effects of cattle rustling and banditry in North[1]western Nigeria with particular reference to Zamfara State. primary and secondary data was used to generate relevant information. The study found out that some of the causes of the menace of cattle rustling and banditry is as a result of ungoverned space which serves as hideouts for the criminals, weak security system, porosityof the borders, and armsproliferations. Also, the effects of cattle rustling and banditry identified are; killing and destruction of property, displacement of people and destruction of livelihoods. The study therefore recommended that Government should provide adequate security to improve the socio-economic condition of the people in Zamfara State. Government should provide basic amenities and economic support to those affected by the criminality in the State.</p> Usman Rabi’u Hapsat Hamidu Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 14 14 THE LEGISLATURE AND LAW MAKING PROCESS IN A TRANSITIONAL DEMOCRACIES: PERSPECTIVES ON NIGERIA AND SOUTH AFRICA <p><em>The legislators represent the people in their various constituencies, so it is critical that they ensure the passage and implementation of laws that benefit the common man. The paper employed a qualitative approach in its analysis, with secondary data sourced from books, journals, and online resources.&nbsp; While elite theory was adopted as its theoretical framework. This paper compares the legislative systems of Nigeria and South Africa. This is due to the two countries' unique histories. It should be noted that South Africa was under the minority rule of Apartheid until their independence in 1994, whereas Nigeria was under military rule with a brief period of democracy until 1999, when the military handed over the mantle of leadership to the civilian government. Comparing these systems brought to light the similarities and differences inherent in their legislative procedure. The study revealed that both the Nigerian and South African legislatures continue to face numerous challenges in carrying out their responsibilities, ranging from institutional arrangements, operational procedures, and individuals' attitudes toward their legislative role. The paper concludes by suggesting that there is a need for a unified political party guided by strong ideology, capable of exercising party discipline, upholding justice, mediating and reducing inter-organ conflict. </em></p> MUHAMMAD AMINU KWASAU Abdulrahman Ibrahim Richifa Ramatu Yusuf Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 11 11 THE IMPACT OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES AMONG NIGERIA UNIVERSITIES DURING COVID-19 <p><em>Education was among the sectors with the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Before the pandemic, the Nigerian education system adopted a purely, face-to-face approach to teaching and learning in most of its universities. However, with the emergence of the lockdown condition and school closure, following the COVID-19 pandemic, both students and lecturers were helpless about how to continue learning in the face of the pandemic. In a bid to avoid brain-drain and prevent the total collapse of the education sector in the country, Nigeria joined other leagues of developed countries to incorporate e-learning in the education system. This paper investigates the challenges posed by, and the impacts of COVID-19 on university education in Nigeria while examining the impact of the Innovative Pedagogical Approaches that were utilized in ensuring a successful learning transition during the said period. It also examines the perception of students of Nigerian institutions of higher learning using the new digital culture induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper showed that e-learning spurred education development in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, as it impacted positively on the educational process, unlike the physical chalkboard in the classrooms.&nbsp; Studies also revealed that some students of higher education in Nigeria had a low acceptance of virtual learning embarked upon by many higher institutions throughout the country during the COVID-19 lockdown preferring instead the traditional classroom setting due to poor internet infrastructure and lack of electricity and thus putting them in the “Laggards adopter categorization” of the diffusion innovation theory, i.e., the group that is highly conservative and extremely slow to accept new technological innovations. Recommendations such as investment in digital infrastructure, training university staff on new teaching methods, and developing strategies for improving e-learning in university education were highlighted. Finally, the study concludes that the increasing access to new information and communication technology (ICT) via internet connectivity made access to education easier barring the previously insurmountable barrier of distance and location of higher education seekers during the period.</em></p> Adesola I. Olowokere Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 9 9 POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FUEL SUBSIDY REMOVAL IN NIGERIA: <p><em>Political economy is a term used for studying production and trade, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as the distribution of national income and wealth. Political economy originated in moral philosophy. Originally, political economy meant the study of the conditions under which production or consumption within limited parameters were organized in nation-states. Thus, political economy was meant to express the laws of production of wealth at the state level, just as economics was the ordering of the home. </em><em>Virtually all modern independent States have, as their fundamental goals, the pursuit of the welfare and well-being of their citizens. To achieve these goals, the Nigerian State is required to harness its huge human and material resources for the development of the country. The paper examines the nature and politics of oil subsidy in Nigeria with the aim of identifying the forces behind subsidy removal. To scientifically analyze the issues raised, the study utilized political economy and public choice theories, an eclectic approach. The paper argued that the removal of fuel subsidy by the Federal Government in 2012 violates the fiduciary responsibility of the State as exposed in the preamble to the 1999 constitution. It showcases the insensitivity of the government to the social concerns of the citizenry and attempt by the oil cabal to privatize Nigeria. Given the catalogue of challenges facing fuel subsidy. The paper concludes that, unless the government predicates its legitimacy on the peoples’ support and obedience derived from better socio-economic performance, the country might experience another democratic reversal and recommends among others, that political institutions and institutional rules should be strengthened, accountable and made autonomous of cabals and individuals who might want to manipulate them for group or personal interests. </em></p> AMINU ABDULLAHI SHAGALI Ramatu Yusuf Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 12 12 HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS AND THE NORTHEAST PHENOMENON <p><em>This study explores humanitarian interventions in the northeastern part of Nigeria where the country is challenged by the activities of the Boko Haram insurgents for over thirteen years of heinous attacks on the Nigerian State and the people. With incessant attacks on communities and thousands fleeing their homes to displaced persons’ camps, the majority of them would have to survive mostly on humanitarian aid and relief materials. The article argues that in the face of pervasive terrorism in the northeast region, the federal government cannot single-handedly carry the weight of humanitarian emergencies. This paper stem from the complexity of the Nigerian problems ranging from insurgencies, internal displacement, human insecurity and humanitarian crisis threatening the existence of Nigeria as a single corporate entity. The crux is that responding to humanitarian emergencies as counterinsurgency and counterterrorism efforts is largely dependent on local and foreign interventions especially as it concerns meeting the basic needs of the displaced populace. Thus, this work employed a qualitative research design to examine the challenges that befall Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps and how such issues could be resolved to alleviate the suffering of displaced persons and prevent dire humanitarian crises across the region. The study, therefore, recommends the involvement of humanitarian agencies to assist the government mobilise resources for those directly affected by the Boko Haram menace.</em></p> Chinwendu Angela Nwizu-Okoye Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 9 9 THE POLICY OF GENDER EQUALITY AND ITS PROSPECTS ON EUROPEAN UNION <p style="margin: 0in; text-align: justify;"><em>The paper has made efforts in this study to unveil the prospects of gender equality as a way to resolve gender discrimination in the European Union. This is important because social equality helps in gaining a win-win approach by incorporating female folks into social, economic, and political activities in Europe. In the study, two objectives were under consideration: to examine the emergence of the policy of gender equality in Europe and the prospects of gender equality in the European Union. The study used qualitative data through the use of secondary sources of materials such as books, journals, Internet, among others and was historically analyzed. The study employed Feminist Political Theory as a theoretical orientation to analyze the dominance of men over women in a social system. The findings emphasize that the policy of gender equality has more benefits as the female folks get exposed to education and paid jobs, which automatically increases the individuals' and the European Union's economic base. The paper concludes that gender inequality does not encourage productivity among women, that the clamour for gender equality is important because it enhances capacity building among women and also generate their latent talents for societal development through education. Finally, the paper recommended that gender equality should be observed consistently with all vigor for financial stability, acquisition of technical education, and participation in democratic institutions to enhance development in the European Union.</em></p> Rufus Aisedion Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 11 11 EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMME AS AN IMPERATIVE STRATEGY FOR ALLEVIATING POVERTY IN NIGERIA <p><em>The study examined social protection programme as an imperative for alleviating poverty in Nigeria between 2010 and 2021. Nigerian government adopted the national social protection policy among others to addresses poverty, unemployment, social and economic vulnerabilities, inequality, exclusion and other threats to sustainable development. The social protection policy is an umbrella policy framework that incorporates related social agenda paradigms intended to reduce poverty and provide a life of dignity for all citizens. Sadly, since the adoption of the policy in 2016 and a significant increase in social protection budget from N261.65 billion in 2010 to N1.26 trillion 2021, more Nigerians have been plunged into poverty and the number increases daily. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of government expenditure on social protection programmes in alleviating poverty using the method of unit root and descriptive statistic test to carry out the diagnostics analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) method on annual data on government expenditure on social protection programmes and per capita income (Poverty), which was generated from Federal Ministry of Finance and World Development Indicator. The finding revealed that government expenditure on social protection programme has positive and statistically insignificant relationship with per capita income (poverty) in Nigeria during the period under review. Therefore, the study concludes that </em><em>there </em><em>is</em><em> need</em> <em>to</em> <em>transform the</em> <em>social protection programmes in terms of wider coverage without</em><em> segregating</em> <em>its</em><em> structures to brighten the prospects of the programmes in alleviating poverty. </em><em>The study recommended that </em><em>for social protection programmes to be considered plausible in alleviating poverty, the entire population, including formal and informal workers, should be protected from different risks along the life cycle such as chronic poverty, climate change, and insecurity among others. Furthermore, programme design and implementation should be suitable to meet the special needs of persons with different characteristics, circumstances, and vulnerabilities.</em></p> Imran Usman Sani Charity Yavala Edward Gyang Grace Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 10 10 AN ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATION OF SEPARATION OF POWER IN NIGERIA’S PRESIDENTIAL DEMOCRACY <p><em>The study examined the operation of separation of power in Nigeria’s presidential democracy. It adopted secondary source of data which include Textbooks, Journals, Magazines, Newspapers and other documentary materials relevant to the study. Separation of power lead to specialisation among the three arms of Government, prevent tyranny and dictatorship in the state and promote rule of law. The problems the study attempts to address are the feud between the Executive and the Legislature on budget issues, the problem of passing bills into laws and delay in court processes which have negative effects on human rights. The study recommended that there should be effective cooperation and partnership between the arms of Government during budget preparation and passage of bills into laws.&nbsp; 1999 constitution should be review in line with the yearnings and aspirations of Nigerians. All arms of Government and Government agencies should adhere strictly to the rule of law. Government should establish more courts and recruit more Judicial officers. </em></p> OGU SUNDAY CHUKWUMA VICTOR OGU ADIMCHI Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 10 10 TEACHER EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE NIGERIAN AND ZAMBIAN EXPERIENCE <p><em>The paper adopted a comparative analysis theory to appraise the teacher education programmes in Nigeria and Zambia</em>. <em>The former,</em><em> an amalgamation of Northern and Southern protectorates of the British Colonial Empire in West Africa with a population of </em><strong>218,521,780</strong>&nbsp;as <em>of Tuesday, December 6, 2022 (</em><em>Worldometer, 2022)</em> <em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</em><em>while the latter is a land locked country in Southern Africa with a total estimated population of </em>19,630,460&nbsp;as <em>of Monday, December 5, 2022. </em><em>The two countries have put in place transformative processes aimed at developing teacher education policies towards rapid development of their various nations. Nigeria has a well-structured curriculum for pre-service and in-service training of teachers through the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and National Teacher’s Institute (NTI) and Zambia equally has a well-organized institution that handles the in-service training of teachers known as National In-Service Training College (NISTCOL). The challenges faced by the two countries in the provision of teacher education programmes are highlighted in the paper and their corresponding remedies to bring about robust improvements. The study revealed that</em> <em>there is a gap between what the educational planners expected in theory and what they work towards to achieve in practice</em>. <em>Recommendations such as </em>the <em>need </em><em>for</em><em> provi</em><em>sion of adequate </em><em>facilities</em><em>, funding, capacity building</em><em> (Pre-service and In-service teachers) and sensitization of the public on the objectives of National Teacher Education Policy in Nigeria and Zambia among others have been advanced in the paper.</em></p> OMALE ALLEN ABDULJABBAR STEPHEN DAUDA Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 12 12 TEACHERS AND EDUCATION TRANSFORMATION IN NIGERIA: <p><em>Education Transformation begins with teachers for a simple reason that, they are vested with important numerous responsibilities which are primarily related to promoting effective growth and development of students, facilitating the achievement of academic goals and up-grading the overall system of education. When the educators are recruited, there are certain aspects that need to be taken into consideration. These include, educational qualifications, experience, competencies and personality traits. Furthermore, for education to be transformed, teachers are to possess the abilities to work under stress and deal with various problems and challenges in an appropriate manner. With these traits, they will be able to perform their duties satisfactorily and enhance effectively education transformation agenda. Within the period of time, it is necessary to generate awareness in terms of usage of technologies and other modern and innovative methods that would facilitate in the successful implementation of education transformation tasks and activities. This paper examines the significant roles of teachers and stakeholders in ensuring education transformation amidst numerous challenges facing the country today. The paper concludes that, the roles and responsibilities of teachers are considered vital in transforming educational system as well as promoting academic learning among pupils, enabling them to inculcate the traits of morality, ethics, diligence, resourcefulness and conscientiousness, promoting community welfare and leading to effective growth and development of individuals, so they can render a significant contribution in promoting better livelihoods for themselves. It also recommends that, implementation of education transformation plans as prioritized by World Bank, UNESCO as well as other models analyzed by cheng will significantly help to transform educational systems in Nigeria. Government therefore has a lot to do here because implementation of these frameworks require huge amount of money from beginning to the end.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> AMINU ABDULLAHI SHAGALI Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 8 8 THE IMPACT OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE ON IDENTITY CONFLICTS IN THE MIDDLE BELT REGION OF NIGERIA <p><em>The article examines the impact of democratic governance on violent identity conflicts in the Middle Belt Region of Nigeria. The central thesis of this paper is that, the absence of profound democratic institutions provide ground for political mobilisation along ethnic and religious fault lines, therefore, stimulates violent identity conflicts in this region. The article employs midrange democratic theory to establish the nexus between democratic governance and prevalence of violent identity conflicts particularly in the Middle Belt. Midrange democratic theory admits that, midrange democracies are mere institutionalised elections, therefore undermining horizontal accountability and adherence to formal rules. The methodology employed in this paper is qualitative analysis, which relies solely on written sources, and it encompasses documents, monographs, manuscripts, journals articles as well as government reports.&nbsp;</em><em>Democratic governance is essentially about profound institutions building which transcends mere institutionalisation of elections, thus, the absence of adherence to formal rules serves as a major cause of violent identity conflicts. This is because central to identity conflicts and violence is the absence of profound democratic. The paper recommended that, eradicating identity conflicts in Nigeria should transcend the symptoms of Nigeria’s ethnic and religious diversities to focus on addressing the institutionalised marginalisation and inequalities that precipitate not only violent conflict in the Middle Belt but Nigeria in general. </em></p> USMAN Irmiya Thomas AYENI Jummai Ometere Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 9 9 EDUCATION IN EMERGENCIES AND NATIONAL DEVELOPEMENT: BRIDGING THE GAP IN EDUCATING INTERNALLY DISPLACED CHILDREN <p><em>The paper looks at education as philological concept. What type of life is expected of the learners or young recruits to the society when their education is halted or totally cut off? </em><em>That Nigeria did not achieve the target of the Education for All (EFA) goals and goal 2, target 3 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)</em><em> and currently struggling with attainment of all the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)</em><em> set by world stakeholders </em><em>in 2030 </em><em>is no longer news.What is news however, and particularly worrisome is that the Country is </em><em>bedeviled</em><em> with over 10 million out-of-school children and increasing conflict situations. What happens to the quest for education of children in these emergency situations?&nbsp; How does the Ministries of Education in the Country, Development Partners and Stakeholders in the education industry provide adequate and well compensated teachers, teaching aids and basic infrastructure to the internally displaced Children Camps? The paper </em><em>analyzed</em><em> these situation closely and its attendant consequences for the overall </em><em>national </em><em>development of the Country.&nbsp; The impact of violence or crisis, wars, natural and man-made disasters and insurgencies like the notorious and intractable </em><em>bandits ravaging the North West and </em><em>Boko Haram </em><em>in the </em><em>North </em><em>East </em><em>Zone</em><em>s</em><em> are quite exemplary. The paper recommends that to ensure a peaceful society, free of sectarian and ethno-religious crisis etc. all stakeholders must work together and an enduring political will on the part of the Nigerian Government is a key to providing quality education to crisis affected children. </em></p> OMALE ALLEN ABDULJABBAR STEPHEN DAUDA Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 14 14 NIGER DELTA AND THE CHALLENGE OF NIGERIA’S NATIONAL SECURITY <p><em>The Niger Delta question has become a recurrent decimal, just like a deadly disease that has defied all palliative means. This study takes a cursory look at the Niger Delta persistent crisis and the challenges it poses to the Nigeria's national security. No doubt, the people of the region have suffered neglect for a longtime, and the resources there that have been badly explored are in deplorable state. The study establishes that there remains a million and one question unresolved, vis-a-vis resource allocation and control, hostage taking, militancy, among others, though the government, at a time takes a new look towards the region, conflict still remains exacerbated and has since assumed a new dimension. It adopts Conflict Theory to interrogate the discourse and uses secondary sources to gather the needed information. Ironically, some group of people who at the initial stage struggled to bail the region out of her predicament under activism, now see the situation of violent conflict as plausible and means to enrich and negotiate better deals for themselves. Will the crisis ever be resolved? It </em><em>further probes into the underlying factors responsible for the present state of the crisis and the neo-elastic dimension of the crisis. In summary, the study overviews several factors responsible for the crisis and why the plight has endured for so long. In view of the challenges it poses for national security, it recommends that Nigerian government must be sensitive enough to address issues that are urgently begging for attention while a subtle but discreet military approach will suffice a method to resolve the contemporary phase of militancy in the region.</em></p> Adesina Abdulfattah RAJI Adeyinka Tajudeen Yusuf Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 21 21 EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF NIGERIA’S PARTICIPATION IN PARIS AGREEMENT TOWARDS CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY <p><em>The study is designed to examine the impact of Nigeria’s participation in Paris agreement towards climate change, which has become global in both its cause and effect and poses the most complex global policy problem. Climate change is defined as some observable variations in the climate system that is attributable to human activities. This study uses secondary sources obtained from government agencies and data submitted by Nigeria to the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC), intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), academic researches and recent submission on adaptation and mitigation as part of Nigeria’s nationally determined contribution (NDC) to examine the impact of Nigeria participation in the Paris agreement. The research adopted liberalism as it theoretical framework due to it assumption that nations benefits from cooperation in an atmosphere of peace and harmony. It uses evidence based facts; to discover that Nigeria will truly benefits from Paris agreement in achieving a low-carbon economy, increased agricultural productivity, which will help Nigeria to join a next wave of global climate actions. Recommendations were made which include: Strengthening national capacity at the Federal, State and Local Government levels to plan and respond effectively to climate change policies. &nbsp;</em></p> Salisu Salisu Shuaibu Zuhra Aminu Yar Gaya Ummusalama Yusha’u Shu’aibu Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 11 11 INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY AND ETHNO-REGIONALIST SENSIBILITIES OF AfCFTA IN NIGERIA <p><strong><em>Abstract</em></strong></p> <p><em>The paper examines the ecstasies of intra-African Trade for the development of African continent which is termed as ethno-regionalist sensibilities. Evidently, there is wide scholastic atmosphere which portray Euro-American agenda in international relations. Because, the postwar of international political economy exposing the gap of economic disequilibrium between the west and the former colonies. Despite the visible multilateral developmental agencies in the global system, the continent of Africa is still disposed the latter of deficit balance of payment. This becomes the basis for the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) by the African Leaders since 2018 to confront any bully at international trade frontier. Even though this feat meant to cater for the development of the globalizing environment, the preexisting asymmetric national interests of the AfCFTA member states becomes ambivalent outlook of the programme. Thus, institutionalizing AfCFTA in some African states like Nigeria is also a major concern because of the persisting developmental issues in the polity. Therefore, the pervasive governance is the reason to make this research significant to the implementation of AfCFTA in Nigeria.&nbsp; Data were collected both from primary and secondary sources, , using institutional and development (dependency) theories&nbsp; to&nbsp;&nbsp; examined&nbsp;&nbsp; the strength of AfCFTA in Nigeria’s&nbsp; economy. Findings reveals &nbsp;&nbsp;the internal intricacies of the Nigerian polity which inhibits the effectiveness of AfCFTA in Nigeria.</em></p> Abdulkareem Jimoh EDUN Isiaka Seriki ADAMU Salihu Mosadioluwa AYINDE Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 14 14 SECURITY AGENCIES AND HUMAN RIGHT VIOLATION IN GOMBE STATE OF NIGERIA: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD <p><em>It is no news that Nigeria, which is arguably the giant of Africa, is known for human rights violations. From its years of military authoritarianism which witnessed the killing of several human rights activists, and since the return to democratic rule, the country’s human rights narrative has not changed. Government authorities and law enforcement agents (the police and the military) frequently engage in various human rights violations, notably unlawful killings, torture, ill-treatment of no crime suspects, forced evictions, interference with the rights to peaceful assembly and freedom of association, and violence against women and children are widespread across the country. This has created worrisome threats to lives and government; seem to be grappling with the situation. </em><em>The broad objective of the study focus on human rights practices and security agencies in Gombe State of Nigeria: An Appraisal, 2015-2022. The specific objectives were to: examine how the security agencies in Nigeria have infringed on Gombe State part of Nigeria and highlight the reformed strategies that can cushion human right conundrum in the study area. This study used ex post facto design while </em><em>the analytical tools used were mean and Z - test. The study reveals that, security agencies in Nigeria has significantly infringed on Gombe State part of Nigeria. The reformed strategies have significantly contributed to the cushioning of human right conundrum in the study area. In analyzing the phenomenon of human rights practices and security agencies in Gombe State of Nigeria, Marxists theory of the state was employed. The stud recommend improvement in the human right protection and promotion particularly in Gombe State of Nigeria. </em></p> Keneth Mela Muhammad Ahmad GARBA Samuel Abimbola Kolawole Osanubi Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3 3 18 18 CHALLENGES OF NIGERIA’S DEMOCRATIC SUSTENANCE: <p><em>National security and legitimacy are essential issues of governance that no nation desirous of political, economic and democratic stability can afford to take with levity. Thus, when countries begin to struggle in these critical areas of governance, her democracy becomes threatened. Nigeria’s national security, legitimacy and democratic sustenance are not exempted from a number of challenges, threatening her in the Fourth Republic. Hence, the paper is an interrogation into the challenges of national security, legitimacy and democratic sustenance. The paper adopted desk research method to gather secondary materials that were contently analyzed and the failed states theory was used as the explanatory framework of the research. The paper identified inherited colonial security orientation, Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen clashes, banditry, ethnicity, separatist agitations, underdevelopment and electoral malpractices as the core challenges of Nigeria’s democratic sustainability. It recommends a review of the entire national security apparatus, citizen’s welfare through good governance, and public enlightenments to strengthen supports for democratic institutions in Nigeria.&nbsp; </em></p> ABDULLAHI ABIODUN OYEKANMI ADEOLA ADERAYO ADEBAJO ASHIMIYU OLAYINKA ADENUGA Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 15 15 ELECTIONS IN NIGERIA: ANALYSIS OF THE 2011 AND 2015 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN EDO STATE <p><em>In every democratic society, leaders are elected through the instrumentality of election. Before independence, elections have been conducted in Nigeria to elect representatives of the people. The study analyzed the 2011 and 2015 presidential elections and the level of citizens’ involvements. It also assessed the various challenges in conducting the elections. This&nbsp;&nbsp; study undertook a critical examination of management of elections by Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) with special reference to 2011 and 2015 presidential election. The survey method was deployed in the cause of this study and data was analyzed using the percentage and descriptive method of data analysis. Findings from the study revealed that incessant electoral fraud over the years characterized Nigerian elections&nbsp; but was&nbsp; drastically reduced in both elections but more effective in&nbsp; 2015 presidential election than 2011 presidential election dues to digital capture machines introduced by (INEC)&nbsp; as against analog (manual) used in 2011.This study Comparatively revealed&nbsp; that, in 2015, election violence was at minimum as against 2011 election which resulted in massive election violence in the Northern zone of Nigeria which led to loss&nbsp; of public confidence. The situation was however managed efficiently in 2015 with special reference to presidential election in Edo State. The study recommend among others that electoral personnel should be well trained on how to handle data capture machines, eligible voters should be enlightened on how to vote in the polling unit, elections should be cancelled on polling units where ballot boxes are snatched. Also, critical s</em><em>takeholders and citizens should be educated on purpose and benefits of violence free elections in the country.</em></p> Osadebamwen Francis OSAYI Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 20 20 RESOLVING THE CRISIS IN THE NIGER DELTA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR PEACE AND STABILITY <p><em>The paper examined critically the challenges and prospects for peace and stability in the quest to resolve the escalating crisis in Niger Delta. </em><em>The paper adopts purely the qualitative method for the successful undertaking of the research.&nbsp; The population used in the study encompasses individuals living within the Niger Delta region. Via careful enumeration, 27individuals who are indigenes living in the area in the nine different states that makes up the Niger Delta were selected as the study sample for the research paper. The Data utilized for this study was collected via an open-ended survey which was sent to the mail of the respondents. This was done to reduce the huge financial cost that comes with the far distance between the researcher and the area of study, and also to ensure the security of the researcher considering the volatile state of kidnappings and insecurity in the Niger Delta.</em></p> ISIAQ Atanda Abdulwaheed Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 15 15 EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF OSUN STATE PUBLIC SERVICE <p><em>Corruption is one of the main issues highlighted as having detrimental effects on many countries' socioeconomic growth. In Nigeria, corruption is evident in every aspect of the economy, including public service. This study reveals that corruption affects the efficient provision of services by the Nigerian Public Service. The ability of the government to provide fundamental services in the areas of education, health, water, power, and other basic amenities has been adversely impacted by corruption, a reality widely acknowledged in Nigeria. Hence, this study examined the economic implication of corruption on public service in Osun State, Nigeria, as a point of reference. While corrupt practices are a major contributor to a country's economic decline, it's important to remember that civil servants and public servants commit the majority of corrupt acts. The study relied primarily on qualitative data obtained from secondary sources. The research methodology adopted for this study is content analysis. The paper made an argument using the "Prebendalism Model" as its theoretical framework. The study reveals that corruption is an impediment to the economic growth and development of Osun State. The study comes to the conclusion that corruption in the public sector is a significant barrier to the successful provision of services to the Nigerian population. The authors recommend the need to grant antigraft agencies their own authority. The study recommends that more funds should be invested in education to train and sensitize citizens on the evils of corruption and criminal activities.</em></p> ISIAQ Atanda Abdulwaheed LAWAL Divinefavour Ohida Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 19 19 Challenges of coordinating humanitarian services in Yobe North Senatorial District: A study of Yobe State Emergency Management Agency (YSEMA) <p><em>Internally Displaced Persons living in host communities of Yobe North Senatorial Zone, Yobe State seems to suffer countless humanitarian challenges due largely to seeming inadequacies in the coordination of humanitarian services to alleviate the plights of the IDPs. The recurring insurgency especially in rural communities of the affected states in the north-east has compelled the displaced persons not to return to their original places of abode, hence, persistence of humanitarian crises in host communities of Yobe north senatorial district. This research dwelled on assessing the challenges of coordinating humanitarian services by Yobe state government in Yobe north senatorial district. The study used mixed method involving qualitative and quantitative approaches to elicit data from interviews and questionnaire respectively. Primary data is sourced from IDPs living in host communities of Yobe North Senatorial Zone, traditional authorities and officials of Yobe State Emergency Management Agency. Secondary data is obtained from official records, gazettes, books on best practices, journals and relevant materials from reputable sources. Structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Focus Group Discussion with IDPs was conducted in each of the three areas of study selected. Key informant interviews was conducted with three officials of Yobe State Emergency Management Agency. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analysed using Thematic Content Analysis on Qualitative Data Analysis Miner (QDAM) based on the research objectives. Findings of the study were presented using Explanatory Sequential Design where narratives from the qualitative data support numerical findings.</em></p> Lawan Cheri Mohammmed Kaku Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 16 16 IMPLICATION OF FARMERS AND HERDERS CONFLICT ON HUMAN SECURITY: CASE STUDY OF TSAFE LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA <p>Since the return of Nigeria to democratically elected government in 1999 over 100,000 citizens mostly in rural areas have been killed and hundreds of thousands have been displaced in conflict involving farmers and herders. Intensive agricultural activities and the rising density in population have put pressure on land which is natural resources that farmers and herders compete for in order to sustain their means of livelihood. Desert encroachment, soil erosion, environmental degradation, and proliferation of small arms and light weapons have been advanced by scholars as the factors responsible for farmer-herder’s conflict in Nigeria. Thus this study sets out to assess the nature, factors and the impact of farmer-herder’s conflict on human security in Nigeria. This study adopts survey research design. The sample selected for the study consist of 190 respondents from the study area. The number (sampling size) was computed in line with the Taro Yamane (2007) formula. The sample was drawn using purposive sampling of three villages (communities where farmers and herders co-dwell). Primary data were obtained through close ended questionnaire with likert 5 points rating scale. &nbsp;Data was presented using frequency and percentage. Arithmetic mean was used in analysing the variables from the questionnaire weighing the degree of response. The study finds out that climate change has effect on the quantity and quality of natural resources available to both the farmers and herdsmen, hence the cause of conflict. Blockage of designed cattle grazing route and water points by farmers and other land users hinders assess of herdsmen to essential means of livestock existences and this serve as trigger to the conflict. This study recommends that government and enforce gazette grazing routes and reserves for herdsmen and earmark land for farmers in a way that conflict can be minimised.</p> Bitrus Kantiyok Kamar Hamza Abubakar Hamza Victor A. Kolawole Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 3 3 14 14