Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development <p><strong>Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development </strong>is a Bi-annual double-blind peer-reviewed and research driven journal devoted to providing intellectual platform for the dissemination of empirical and critical research in the areas of Political Science, Political Theory, Political Economy, Development Studies, Comparative Politics, Public Policy, International Relations, Security and Strategic Studies and other related areas. The Journal is a Publication of the Department of Political Science, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> (Abdulrahman Adamu) (Yunisa Hassan) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ON NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA <p><em>This study examines the impact of corruption on national development in Nigeria a sociological analysis. The paper adopted a descriptive approach to explain how corruption has affected national development negatively. The methodology used in the study was secondary sources, where data were collected from internet, journals, documents, Newspapers, books were all contents analyzed. The study anchored on collective theory as a theoretical framework to explain the nature of corruption in Nigeria. The study revealed that corruption has eaten deep into the entire fabric of Nigerian society. It has become norms and culture, and more or less a contagious disease that seems to be incurable disease. The paper, therefore recommended among others that proactive measures should be taken to tackles the menace of corruption in Nigeria. This can be achieved through enacting laws relating to anti- corrupt laws institute death penalty for the offenders. This will act as a sign or as deterrent to would be corrupt individuals or corporate body.</em></p> WALTER OMANG OGAR, MERCY EMMANUEL Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Tue, 04 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 ACCESS, SHARING, PRESERVATION, AND USE OF CRIME INFORMATION BY STAKEHOLDERS IN SABON TASHA, KADUNA-NIGERIA <p><em>When measures for crime management seem inefficient, it suggests something is wrong with the performance of the security stakeholders. The current study used a rational choice model to examine how the various security agencies and stakeholders access crime information and whether or not such information is shared between and among the various stakeholders, and how the same is preserved and used in managing crime in Sabon Tasha. The aim is to explain the seeming ineffectiveness of crime management in Sabon Tasha. The study utilized an in-depth interview supplemented with a research questionnaire to obtain data from the respondents. The study findings indicate that security stakeholders in Sabon Tasha access crime information primarily through reports and non-forensic investigations and that a tradition of information sharing exists amongst stakeholders. Still, crime information in Sabon Tasha is poorly preserved. The study also reveals that stakeholders are using crime information inefficiently as the area's crime rate increases. It is the position of this study that information is vital in any attempt at managing crime. However, it brings attention to the more critical issue of the sophistication and reliability of the source(s) of crime information and how it is shared, processed, preserved, and utilized. The competency of security stakeholders is central here as this determines their ability to source reliable information, adequately share, preserve, analyze, and use the same against criminals. Considering the primacy of security in the wellbeing of every community, this study recommends the sincere tackling of the obstacles against the proper access, preservation, and the effective use of crime information in Sabon Tasha, as revealed by the study.</em></p> DOGARA WAZIRI FADASON, SAMAILA ADELAIYE, ADAMU SOLOMON BALA Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Tue, 04 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 AN ASSESSMENT OF SMART GOVERNMENT APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA CUSTOMS SERVICE: A STUDY OF ZONE A LAGOS <p><em>The Nigeria Customs Service is facing the challenges of meeting up with global best practices thus, the study examined Technology application in Nigerian Customs service: A study of Zone A Lagos Command. The study used qualitative research, the target population of this study includes zone A customs, the total population is 6942, judgmental sampling was used, data was generated from both primary and secondary sources, in-depth- interviews were conducted with 10 stakeholders of Nigerian Customs Service, the data was analyzed thematic using Atlas TI9. The finding shows that the application of technology has increase transparency of Customs thereby minimizing corruption, </em><em>boost revenue generation, </em><em>proper examination of imported and exported goods. The finding also shows that Customs suffers from latest technology such as </em><em>scanning machine, poor network connectivity and p</em><em>orous borders. The study recommends application of latest technology in order to ensure border patrol.</em></p> DR. ADAMU MOHAMMED, ALHASSAN ADAMU Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Tue, 04 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0100 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF FEDERAL RADIO CORPORATIONNIGERIA (FRCN) AND KADUNA STATE MEDIA CORPORATION (KSMC) ON THE REPORTAGE OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS: 2011-2019 <p><em>This paper examines the pattern of Media reportage of ethno-religious conflicts in Kaduna metropolis. The importance of electronic media in the world is well recognized due to its functions of social responsibility. The aim of this research is to ‘Assess the Role of Federal Radio Corporation Nigeria (FRCN) and Kaduna State Media Corporation (KSMC) in their reportage of ethno-religious conflict within Kaduna metropolis between 2011-2019’ The research adopts both Qualitative and Quantitative method of research which allows the researcher to use a designed questionnaire as well as structured interview to gather a data. The research anchored on Social Responsibility Theory of media. The findings of the study reveal that, ethno-religious conflicts in Kaduna metropolis were not caused by the reportage of (FRCN and KSMC) radio stations. The study concludes that (FRCN and KSMC) serves as the best electronic media houses in Kaduna metropolis because they usually abide by the ethics of journalism, and are objective in their reportage. They serve as an instrument of peace and they always educate, inform and enlighten people concerning the importance of living together harmoniously. The study recommends that, (FRCN and KSMC) be seen as helping to report issues on ethno-religious conflict as they occur without selective coverage. </em></p> Haruna Ja’e, MUHAMMAD AYUBA, AHMED BUBA (PH. D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 ASSESSMENT OF STATE AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS) HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS TO 2022 FLOOD VICTIMS IN JIGAWA STATE <p><em>The study investigates the impact of state and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) humanitarian intervention to flood victims in Jigawa state. As decade old perennial disaster, the ensuing impact of flooding accounts for humanitarian aid crises such as forceful displacement, widespread diseases, economic losses and retardation of development gains that goes beyond the repairs of state alone and necessitated the involvement of NGOs. The objective of this study therefore is to examine the various humanitarian interventions rendered by the state and NGOs to flood affected victims in the study area with a view to ascertain the impact of such interventions on the humanitarian needs of the affected population. Through the use of survey research method, it was established that, although the humanitarian aid provided by the state and NGOs impacted positively on the living standard of the affected population, however, lack of synergy and developed mechanisms for collaboration between the agencies established by the state and NGOs result in diversion of relief materials for other purposes. The study conclude<strong>s</strong> that, considering the prevalence of the disasters that precipitate the sprawling rate of issues that demand emergencies; without concerted teamwork between the agencies, humanitarian aid crises will not be effectively addressed. It is recommended that Proper monitoring and evaluation team for humanitarian aid services should be established to ensure that the aids provided are delivered to the victims in dire needs. The team should incorporate relevant stakeholders as representatives of the affected communities to ensure proper distribution. </em></p> NAJIB ABDULLAHI, MOHAMMED LAWAN, ADAMU YAHAYA Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 BUILDING STRONG INSTITUTIONS FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL 16 IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC) <p><em>In September 2015, the United Nation General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Building on the principle of leaving no one behind, the new Agenda emphasizes a holistic approach to achieving sustainable development for all. However, tackling </em><em>corruption is vital to achieving the SDGs, particularly SDG 16 which focuses on Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions for reducing illicit financial and arms flows, strengthening the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime; substantially reducing corruption and bribery in all their forms. In achieving these targets, the federal government of Nigeria has introduced strategies, particularly, the creation of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission. </em><em>Drawing on qualitative research design, this study</em><em> specifically examined the determinants of and tendency for corrupt practices; assessed the effectiveness of EFCC in curbing corrupt practices and the analyzed the challenges to the minimization of corrupt practices in Nigeria. The study population comprises the employees in public institutions of Lagos, Ondo and Osun States with a total of 600 respondents purposively selected for questionnaire administration. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential analysis. It was found that corrupt practices were hinged on economic (t=8.41, F=0.00), social (t=5.83, F=0.00), cultural (t=2.81, F=2.81), environmental (t=1.41, F=0.00) and legal (t=0.83, F=0.00) factors. It was equally established that EFCC has significantly contributed to the minimization of corruption in Nigeria through exposing corrupt practices but the fight against corrupt practices were being undermined by overburdened judiciary resulting in slow trial of suspects and non-follow-up of cases as well as inadequate political will on the part of the government, selective prosecution of alleged corrupt officials and weak democratic institutions. It was recommended that anticorruption institutions in Nigeria should be well strengthened with full backing of the Judiciary.</em></p> LAWAL A. BAKARE PHD, SAMAD S. GBADAMOSI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 DEMOCRACY, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA <p><em>This paper examines the nexus among the 'embattled trinity' (democracy, good governance and development) using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian experience under the fourth republic. It argues that whereas democracy, defined as the process by which exercise of political power is vested on the people through their elected &nbsp;representative (s), could be a harbinger of development, with good governance as the link in the chain, much of it would however depend on its time-frame, depth and the context within which it is pursued. It applies institutional analysis to explore the connections between democracy, good governance and development in Nigeria. Data was generated mainly through secondary sources of publications and report. The study reveals that the present state of democracy, good governance and development in Nigeria gives cause for concern, as it tends towards the direction of disempowerment. Indeed, challenges were outlined and were critically examined, leading us to the basic question of whether if Nigeria is really making steps to democracy, good governance and development. While democracy, good governance and development have been on course, it has not taken a firm root, because it has so far been pursued and predicated on western institutions. Given this scenario, the paper recommends for an urgent need for a reversal of the trend, if democracy, good governance and development must be genuinely nurtured and sustained in Nigeria, in the circumstance, we consider social mobilization in all its ramifications as a highly useful and pivotal option.</em></p> Dr. Awwal Muhammad Shafiu , Umar Abdullahi , Dr. Raziqa Muhammad Shafiu, Ahmad Maulud Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 CROSS-BORDER ILLEGAL TRANSFER OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS: THE NIGERIA’S EXPERIENCE <p><em>Small arms and light weapons are currently assumed the most lethal instruments across regions and states. Their proliferation is rather negative; poses threats to security and development particularly in developing parts of the world. Nigeria therefore, like other developing countries, has been experiencing influx of illegal SALW for decades. It is on this context that this paper sets to examine the implications of illegal transfer of SALW in Nigeria. The paper relies on documentary sources of data collection which entails the use of information from the books, journal articles, Newspapers and other documented materials. It observes that porosity of the borders of most countries, ineffective security measures, corruption within the government officials including security personnel and the debilitating economy of African countries play a vital role towards increased illicit transfer of SALW. The paper indicates that illegal transfer of small arms and light weapons has immensely contributed to the rising insecurity situation in Nigeria; intensifies kidnapping across the country, armed banditry in the north-west and insurgency in the north-east. The Nigerian state has participated into several international and regional initiatives and also established national acts and protocols for the control of proliferation of illegal small arms. Nevertheless, the responses were found to be outdated and ineffective mechanisms that can significantly deal with the issue of illegal transfer of SALW. The paper therefore, recommends for political will towards the issue thereby improving the strategy of border control and committing the resources needed for the fight against illegal transfer of SALW. It also urges for all the relevant stakeholders that include, the politicians, government officials, security personnel and community leaders to understand the importance for the control of the spread of illegal arms for sustainable security situation in the country.</em></p> Adamu Rabiu Waziri (Ph.D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EVALUATION OF THE INDIGENOUS METHODS AND THE PROCESSES IN THE RESOLUTION OF CONFLICT IN KADUNA METROPOLIS <p><em>This study explores the forms in which indigenous models exist and the processes, it adopts in resolving conflicts in Kaduna metropolis. Oscar Newman’s defensible space theory</em><em> was adopted. It argues</em><em> that although western methods (police and court system) are crucial to conflict resolution, it is not enough to maintain a safe city. People in the community must help with conflict management. The mixed method approach was used to gather data. A sample size of 337 was drawn for survey, supported by 18 key informant interviews. Its composition was from traditional rulers at the grass root and beneficiaries of the process. Accordingly, findings from the study reveal that the forms of indigenous methods used in dispute resolution are the family system, clan/lineage system and the community method. The process of settlement usually involves the conflicting parties, relevant stakeholders (religious leaders/elders) and traditional ruler. To arrive at settlement, hearing from both parties and witnesses is obtained. The place of settlement is usually the family compound or Traditional ruler’s place with few cases taking place in the community town hall. Outcomes of settlement involve forgiveness by disputing parties while compensation and fines are applied in some instances. Among its advantages were: low cost, easy accessibility, quicker response and shorter duration of adjudication process thus enhances peace in the metropolis.</em></p> HAUWA SALIU, AMINA ALIYU, HAUWA ZEMO ADAMU Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EXPLORING THE FULANI PERSPECTIVE AND THE ROLE OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND TRADITIONAL LEADERS IN COMBATING BANDITRY IN NORTH WESTERN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE CULTURAL AND TRADITIONAL NORMS SHAPING ATTITUDES AND RESPONSES <p><em>This study explores the Fulani perspective on banditry in North Western Nigeria and the role of local communities and traditional leaders in combating this issue. The study utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to collect data from respondents in the states of Kaduna, Zamfara, and Sokoto. The results reveal that local community attitudes towards the Fulani community are mixed, with 30% of respondents having positive attitudes, 45% having neutral attitudes, and 25% having negative attitudes. The study also shows that banditry has a moderate to high impact on the daily lives of members of the Fulani community, with 50% of respondents reporting a moderate impact and 20% reporting a high impact. Furthermore, the study finds that perceptions of the role of traditional leaders in addressing banditry are mixed, with 40% of respondents having a positive perception, 30% having a neutral perception, and 30% having a negative perception. The findings suggest a need for culturally-sensitive strategies that involve the active engagement of local communities and traditional leaders in addressing the root causes of banditry. The study also provides case studies of successful efforts to combat banditry and promote peace and security in the region, highlighting the potential for cultural and traditional norms to play a key role in these efforts. Overall, the study sheds light on the challenges faced by local communities and traditional leaders in combating banditry and underscores the importance of engaging them in the development of sustainable and culturally-sensitive strategies.</em></p> FATIMA ADAM LABARAN, HALIMA IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 FISCAL FEDERALISM AND RESOURCE CONTROL IN NIGERIA <p><em>Resource control and true federalism have remained two contentious factors in the Nigerian body polity. They have been in the front burner of the national discourse since the return to democracy in Nigeria. This research therefore investigates the fiscal federalism and resource control in Nigeria. The research is qualitative in nature </em><em>therefore using mainly secondary sources of data</em><em>. The study adopts the Elite theory as its framework of analysis. It contends that the emergence of the military in politics distorted the Nigeria federal structure in the post-civil war era, when oil politics, revenue allocation system and resource control became one of the critical destabilizing factors in Nigeria’s federal experiment. Moreso</em><em> lack of visionary political leadership and corruption are the major contributors to the agitation for true federalism in Nigeria. It recommends among others that; the character of the Nigerian state must be restructured. This means that the ethnic driven politics and the politics of personal interest and self-aggrandizement must be put to an end. Nigerian political leaders must place national interest above tribal or ethnic interest. The interplay between the centripetal and centrifugal forces in Nigeria’s power equation should be balanced for the ultimate good of society.&nbsp; </em></p> ABUBAKAR IDRIS HASSAN (PH. D), OGAG MUSA ARI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 IS FEDERALISM A BETTER PANACEA FOR ETHNIC CONFLICTS IN MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETIES <p><em>This study explores the roots causes of ethno religious conflicts in multi-ethnic federations and examined counter views that federalism is a workable governmental system for people with diverse traditions. We have found that federalism does not always serve as a panacea for ethnic conflicts in multi-ethnic societies. On the contrary we have found that federalism has perpetuated tensions in many federations. The study concludes that though federalism has failed to fulfil its promises in many federations, yet it will still continue to serve as a better option for surmounting multi-ethnic conflicts in many federations across the globe despite its difficulty and complexity. We recommend the need for justice, fairness and respect of each other.</em></p> IDRIS AHMED JAMO, JA’AFAR ABDULKADIR Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 IMPLICATIONS OF POLITICAL INCLUSION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN POLITICAL PARTY ACTIVITIES IN PLATEAU CENTRAL SENATORIAL ZONE <p><em>This study investigates the implications of the involvement of Persons with Disabilities in political party activities under democracy. The specific objectives are to examine the extent to which party membership and party participation can be used enhance political inclusion of PWD, using survey research design. The population is seventy-two (72) PWDs. The sample size is forty-five (45) PWDs. Political Inclusion Scale (PIS) was the instrument used to obtain data in this research. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics comprising of simple means, percentages, frequencies, standard deviations and tables to answer the two research questions. The results revealed that party membership and party participation enhanced political inclusion of PWD to a high extent. This study as a result, recommends that Political parties and nongovernmental organizations should be committed to helping PWDs in the areas of political parties’ membership and participation.</em></p> LEGNEM JUMANG JIKKUKA (PH. D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 ISSUES AND POLITICS OF RESTRUCTURING WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF NATIONAL QUESTION IN NIGERIA <p><em>In an attempt to study issues and politics of restructuring in Nigeria, this paper explores political issues in the agitations and calls for restructuring in Nigeria. Issues related to the politics of restructuring in Nigeria are identified as they are influenced by many factors and interests, with special reflections on the national question and its relation to the agitations of restructuring, background history of the agitation history in colonial politics as well, politics after independence, geography, heterogeneity and politics of the Nigerian state. Conceptual analysis is used in the paper, where by the researcher observed and analyzed secondary data collected from variety of sources base on the premise of David Easton’s System Theory. Findings from the paper reveal</em><strong><em>s</em></strong><em> that there are severally identified issues, which are critical to and must be squarely addressed in order to arrive at a desired and mutually accepted stand on Nigeria’s wellbeing regarding the politics of restructuring in Nigeria. Also, to sustained unity and stability of the Nigerian state some issues that are linked to the name of restructuring must be sought out and are presented in the paper by looking at elites’ interest among other things that are however, shaped and dominated the restructuring agitations. On the other hand, citizens’ laisse-faire attitude towards their general well-being rendered the agitation partially dormant, which the paper recommends should be addressed by incorporating the masses into proper general political participation. As the study is premised within the context of national question in Nigeria that have socio-economic, political and ethno-religious realities. Therefore, the study presented outline recommendations for the Nigerian policy makers, politicians, citizens and other stakeholders at whole.</em></p> MUKHTAR ABUBAKAR MAIHALI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARRAKECH CLIMATE CONFERENCE <p><em>The 2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference was a conference on climate change held in Marrakech, Morocco from 7<sup>th</sup>-18<sup>th</sup> November, 2016. It was the 22<sup>nd</sup> conference of the parties (COP22)&nbsp;&nbsp; held under the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change and was attended by delegates from 196 countries. The Marrakech conference is a continuation of regular global summits organized by United Nations following the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, whose application was limited to the period covering 2008-2012. Many have applauded the Marrakech climate conference and cited series of gains at the conference like the Marrakech Action Proclamation, Marrakech Partnerships for Global Climate Action, Adaptation Fund, Renewable Energy, Climate Vulnerable Forum, Mid-Century Strategies, Facilitative dialogue and the call upon Canada to meet up her set target. Be that as it may, critics still maintain that many loopholes still linger on. The broad objectives and problem of this work is to see whether the Marrakech conference actually implemented the resolutions reached in Paris or not, and if not why not? We use the theory of Global tragedy of the Commons and our methodology is the secondary sources where we use the documentary evidence as a data gathering technique. At the end of the work, we discover that issues like the adaptation fund, third world positions, orphan issues, heating renewable, financial matters, and private sector funds are still not resolved. This shows that Marrakech is another rhetoric-like Paris conference. It did not implement the resolutions reached in Paris as expected due to differences amongst countries at the conference. To rectify this anomaly, we recommend that unless the spirit of realization is prioritized over that of mere rhetoric concerning those theoretically laudable policies of climate conferences, nothing tangible, substantial or sustainable will be achieved on the climate change issue. <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></em></p> EDGAR AGUBAMAH (PH. D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 MIGRATION CRISIS AND THE AFRICA'S DILEMMA ON THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA <p><em>The quest for greener pasture in foreign lands especially in Europe by Africans crossing the Mediterranean Sea is alarming. This dicey migratory movement without proper means of transport has created a lacuna and opened a Pandora box with regard to African level of unemployment especially among the youth. Recently, one of the major issues or headlines on the media is the reported problem of thousands of Africans submerging in the Mediterranean Sea off Libyan coast and near the Italian island of Lampedusa all in search for better life. The paper seeks to find the causes and impact of transmigration on African continent most especially as it affects Nigeria and West Africa. Consequently, the research which adopted communication theory to explain the nature of the problem; used secondary sources of data like text books, magazines, journals, newspapers and internet sources. In the course of this academic search of objective reality, the paper discovered that some migrants were forced to flee as a result of famine, drought, political persecution, while others wholly migrated for economic reasons. In the final analysis recommendations were given in order to ameliorate this menace that has eaten deep the fabric of social relations and is about to affect diplomatic relations of the affected countries. <strong>(</strong>The paper thus recommends that official visits should be encouraged between and among countries facing this this challenge. For example, the Nigerian Inspector General of police, the Director-General of the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) and their likes should come out with diplomatic measures to strengthen the bond of solidarity through the means of good offices and paying homage to the concern countries; this will help in enforcing restrictions on the international irregular migration system.</em></p> ASHIRU IBRAHIM ZURMI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 MONEY POLITICS AND THE CHALLENGES OF ELECTORAL INTERGRITY IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF THE 2019 GENERAL ELECTION IN GOMBE STATE <p><em>Electoral integrity is indispensable for democratic survival. It deepens the acceptability of the outcomes of elections and improves the people’s acceptability of electoral outcomes. However, the primitive accumulations of votes that have voters available in the market space to be sold and bought tend to invalidate the clamour for electoral credibility. This paper examines the effect of money politics on electoral integrity in Nigeria, with special focus on the 2019 General Election in Gombe State. The specific objectives are to identify the causes of money politics in the State, examine the effect of money politics on electoral integrity in Gombe State 2019 General Election and to determine how to minimize or eradicate money politics and vote buying in the State. The study used mix methods of collecting data. It employs both the qualitative and quantitative methods. The questionnaire and Key Informant Interview were used to elicit primary data. &nbsp;The study reveals that money politics and vote buying have continued to hinder transparency and accountability by political leaders and in turn negatively affect the citizens. It also frustrates efforts at achieving good governance as leaders that engage through such monetized process are hardly accountable. Thus, money politics is an obstacle to achieving societal progress. It is recommended that the masses should be enlightened on the dangers of money politics and vote buying. Security personnel should also be allowed to do the needful during elections; rule of law regarding the issue of vote buying and money politics should be imposed; thuggery (kalare) activities should be stopped in the State.</em></p> UMAR BABA MOHAMMED, ABRAHAMAN MUSA PETER (PH.D), TIMOTHY ONIMISI (PH.D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 NEO-LIBERAL POLICIES AND THE DILEMMA OF AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY <p><em>This paper has analyzed the trends of neoliberal political economic strategies and the crises of development in Africa. The paper’s main objective is to investigate how the implementations of the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC II) and New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) affected the economic and political fortunes of African states with an emphasis on the 21<sup>st</sup> Century. The study relied on secondary data from a library and the internet where relevant literature was sourced. Dependency theory has been adopted as the framework of analysis. The results revealed divergent views regarding the performances of the policies under review. Results show that despite some modest achievements of HIPC II and NEPAD in Africa, the policies are perceived by many analysts as more of a hindrance than a help to Africa’s economic and political development. The result further indicates that policies like other neoliberal development initiatives for developing countries have failed to serve as a panacea to Africa’s intractable development challenge. The reality on the ground revealed that the policies have intensified the perpetuation of the peripheral and marginal status of the African continent in the world’s capitalist economic and political order. The paper concluded that for Africa to overcome its development challenges, there is a need for more credible, effective and inclusive strategies mixed with committed and patriotic leaders who will ensure vigorous implementation of true people’s centered policies. It is recommended that deliberate efforts should be made by African states to ensure greater efficiency in the utilization of available human and material resources, whether external or internal, in a manner that reduces the continent’s overreliance on advanced capitalist countries for assistance.</em></p> ADAMU SA’ADU Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION AND NIGERIA’S POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT: AN ASSESSMENT OF JAMA’ATUL IZALATUL BIDI’A WA’IKAMATUS SUNNAH (JIBWIS) <p><em>In modern societies, non-governmental organizations are an important instrument of political development. This is particularly more pronounced in both developed and emerging democracies. These institutions influence state’s decisions and policies. They also shape public opinion on a wide range of political, economic, and socio-cultural issues. The objectives of NGOs, often serve as the driving force for their engagement with the state and society, which in some ways influence the political development of their societies. In Nigeria, there are numerous and religious, which are very active in the country’s political process. Religious NGOs are, however, seen as the platform that contributes to tensions rather than dialogue and stability in Nigeria’s political development. This paper interrogates this assumption with a particular reference to the Jamátul Izalatul Bida’a Waikamatus Sunnah (JIBWIS). Methodologically, qualitative method was used in data collection and analysis.</em></p> ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED (PH.D), AHMAD MUHAMMAD GUSAU (PH.D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE ROLE OF VIGILANTE GROUPS IN CURBING BANDITRY IN BIRNIN GWARI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA FROM 2012-2018 <p><em>Nigeria needs more than ever before the involvement of informal security actors in peace and conflict resolution. This is as a result of the multifaceted activities of banditry across different geo-political zones in the country. The problem of banditry necessitated the use of vigilante groups in Birnin Gwari LGA from 2015-2019. Despite this innovative security measure, Birnin Gwari LGA of Kaduna state seems not to be recording meaningful drop in the rate of banditry, hence the need for empirical verification. This study therefore, assessed the role of vigilante group in Birnin Gwari LGA from 2015-2019. Relying on both of primary and secondary sources, the paper posits that banditry constitutes a serious threat to Nigeria’s public safety and, by extension, national security. </em></p> ADAMU DANJUMA PETER, DR BUBA AHMED PHD, PROF TUKUR ABDULQADIR Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 PERCEPTIONS OF STATE AND NON-STATE ACTORS ON NIGERIA’S COMPLIANCE WITH UNITED NATIONS ANTI-HUMAN TRAFFICKING PROTOCOL <p><em>United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Supplementing Protocols is the major international treaty that define and guide state action against Trafficking in Person (TIP) and it enjoyed the state parties to criminalized TIP, Prevent TIP, protect victims of TIP, prosecute human traffickers and Promote Partnership in the fight against TIP. This study examined the perception of state and non-state actors on Nigeria’s compliance with UN anti-human trafficking Protocol, using qualitative research methodology. The study is aimed to answer why and under what conditions does Nigeria complied with the Protocol? The study is situated within Hegemonic theory of International Relation to explain whether the country was forced by hegemonic state to comply or the failure to honor the Protocol might hurts the country’s image and reputation. Twenty-four participants from Government Official, International Governmental Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations were interviewed. Based on the perception of the participants four themes emerged (1) Compliance Based on International Pressure, (2) Compliance to promote International Image, (3) Compliance to fulfill constitutional responsibility and (4) Compliance to integrate anti-human trafficking actions. The study contributed in advancing the discussion of Hegemonic Stability Theory to Nigeria’s compliance to UN Human Trafficking Protocol.</em></p> SANI SANI IBRAHIM Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 POLITICS OF SITING PUBLIC PROJECTS AND ITS DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECT ON HOST COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA 2012-2020 <p>&nbsp;<em>The siting of public project is a deliberate attempt by the state to allocate state resources to society. The Federal Government of Nigeria’s continued creation of more public projects like public universities in the country despite the challenges it faces in providing adequate funds and infrastructural facilities in the existing ones has been viewed through both lenses. The siting of such public project has tended to have noticeable developmental effects in the host communities. The failure of scholars in extant literature to systematically investigate the main rationale why the Government of Nigeria continues to create more universities and the impact of their siting on host communities informed this study. Essentially, this study examines the “politics of siting public project in Wukari and its developmental effect on the host community, between 2012 and 2020”. The study provides an answer to the research question formulated. It adopts both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Inferential statistics was employed as the method of data analysis. The study found out, among other things that the siting of Federal University Wukari was dictated by the political consideration of politically-connected persons in the area, but despite that, its establishment has had a positive impact on the development of the host community as there has been attraction of social amenities, service and producing industries.</em><em> The study recommended that</em><em> Federal governments should expedite the strategic siting of public universities in rural communities as a way of stimulating development of the host community. </em></p> EVANS OLUWAGBAMILA AYENI, GERALD E. EZIRIN Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE IMPACT OF RICE FARMING POLICY ON NIGERIAN ECONOMY: A STUDY OF SOME SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN KANO STATE <p><em>This study</em> <em>investigates the impact of rice farming policy on Nigerian economy with a focus on Kura and Bunkure Local Government Areas of Kano State. The methods adopted for obtaining data for the study were both primary and secondary. The objective of the research is to assess the impact of rice farming policy on the provision of employment, to examine the impact on how the policy helps boost the income of the farmers and to investigate how rice farming improved food productions in the areas of the study. It was found amongst others that; the Nigerian government has over the years formulated good rice farming policies meant to encourage and improve food production, provision of employment, as income to Nigerians youth and other economic benefits to enhance economic development but such policies have been found to be inefficient and ineffective. Some evidence was established from the research findings to illustrate that the creation of rice farming policies frequently does not include a critical review of the social, economic, physical/environmental, and political influence on the target intended beneficiaries.On the other hand, rice farming policy execution is affected by implementation issues, one of which is implementation leakage. Equally, findings shows that poor funding affects the policies implementation at Kura and Bunkure. It recommends that; deliberate attempts must be made by government in terms of rice farming policy to improve its agricultural base particularly on food production, provision of employment and income enhancement </em></p> ABUBAKAR SALIHU (PH. D), ADAMU GARBA, ALIYU ISHAQ ABDULLAHI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA: A MODEL FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES <p><em>There is no doubt that science and technology have inspired development across sectors across the globe. Science, in its broader understanding includes engineering as well as the social sciences and the humanities – plays a crucial role for all facet of development. The main objective of this research is to examine the level of China’s commitments in the development of science and technology towards its socio-economic development. With the use of the secondary source of data and descriptive method of data analysis the paper concludes that the commitment of china in the area of science and technology has immensely developed its economy that eventually leads to the general socio-economic development of its citizens which also be seen as a model for development in developing countries. Thus, the paper recommends that, developing countries have to invest hugely in the area of scientific research along-line favorable entrepreneur development schemeso as to boost their economy which willin-turn lead to the socio-economic development of their citizens.</em></p> SAMINU ISMAIL, PH. D Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE EFFECT OF BOKO HARAM TERRORISM ON AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE BORNO STATE SCENARIO (2017-2022) <p><em>This study investigates the effects of terrorism on agriculture in Nigeria, focusing on the Borno state scenario. Terrorist Activities in Borno State Since 2009 a group of Islamic radicals known as Boko Haram has become increasingly vehement in their actions. This set has been useful in the north-eastern Nigerian municipality of Borno since its inception in 2009. This research looks at the effects of terrorism on farming in Borno State. Agriculture in Borno state can be leisurely by utilizing four distinct parameters: the volume of the urbane area, annual crop production, livestock care, and fish farming.</em><em> These are the most important agricultural sector in which the people of Borno are involved. However, due to the inability to obtain statistics, livestock rearing, and fish farming are released, focusing on the area cultivated as well as yearly crop production. Two replicas are advanced as a result of the outcome of these two variables. First, model procedures of the link between crop volumes and terrorist killings; the second model measures the link between entire areas of farmland cultivated and terrorist deaths. This study employs the Ordinary Least Squares methodology and discovers that mutual relationships expose undesirable results, thus representing statistically significant negative effects of terrorism on agricultural activities in Borno State shows that Boko Haram terrorism undoubtedly had a significant impact on agricultural activities in Borno State, and recommendations are given.</em></p> ALABI YUNUSA, AIDELOKHAI DENIS IDONIJE (PH. D), USMAN A. Y. Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 KIDNAPPING FOR RANSOM AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS IN NIGERIA’S NORTH-WEST (2010-2022): EVIDENCE FROM KATSINA STATE <p><em>The paper investigated kidnapping as an emergent security challenge and its socio-economic effects in Nigeria’s north-west region using Katsina state as a reference point between 2010 and 2022. Theoretically the paper deployed Routine Activity Theory (RAT) as its framework of analysis while methodologically the paper employed mixed methods approach with quantitative dominance in data collection and analysis. Research hypotheses were tested at 5% level of&nbsp;significance using non-parametric statistics&nbsp;(chi-square).&nbsp;Findings revealed that unemployment and poverty are the major factors responsible for the rising incidences of kidnapping in the state. Findings also showed that<strong>, </strong>loss of the lives of some victims, financial loss through payment of ransom, forceful closure of businesses; forceful closure of schools; and restrictions in farming activities were the major socio-economic effects of kidnapping in the state.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Further finding revealed that Katsina state’s response to kidnapping in particular and armed banditry in general through amnesty programme and dialogues among others have not effectively curtailed its occurrence in the state.&nbsp;The paper thus concluded that kidnapping would continue to remain a major security challenge in the state in particular and the north-west in general as long as the sponsors/handlers of kidnappers are not identified and made to face the full wrath of the law. The paper recommended among others that government should come up with new policies on employment creation and poverty alleviation so as to reduce the number of idle hands on the streets; identify and prosecute the sponsors/handlers of kidnappers so as to serve as deterrent to others.</em></p> YUSUFU AHMED AUDU, PHD, IDREES Mahmud Gana, MAMMAN Aliyu Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE ROLE OF NIGERIA IN ECOWAS CURRENCY CONVERGENCE: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES <p><em>The study examines the prospects and challenges of Nigeria’s role in ECOWAS currency convergence. The study used both primary and secondary data. The primary data was the interview, while the secondary data were the confidential documents of ECOWAS on currency convergence, ECOWAS annual reports and published literature. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings of the study show that Nigeria have high prospect in ECOWAS currency convergence but her domestic challenges need to be addressed to enjoy the benefits of the prospect. It was concluded that the kind of energy and support on the side of Nigeria towards the realization of the ECOWAS passport and successful military operations within the region to strengthen democracy is much needed in the pursuit of the ECOWAS currency convergence. The study recommend<strong>s</strong> that Nigeria should address her domestic challenges such as economic crises, security crises, and other challenges to be fit to help the Commission actualize the currency convergence in line with the new target of 2027.</em></p> OPALUWA DANIEL, OGOH AUGUSTINE OGBAJI (PH. D), AKUVA ISAAC LORHEN (PH. D) Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 REEXAMINING CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATAGEMS AND EMPLOYEES’ PRODUCTIVITY IN SELECTED NIGERIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS <p><em>T</em><em>his study examined conflict resolution stratagems and organizational performance of selected tertiary institution in Nigeria with focus on tertiary institutions within Edo State, Nigeria. The study used survey design with sample of 150 respondents purposively selected in three Universities- Benson Idahosa University (Edo South), Samuel Adegboyega University (Edo Central) and Edo State University Uzairue (Edo North). The study adopted primary data with the aid of questionnaire which were analyzed using tables and simple percentages (%) while correlation and regression analysis were employed to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study reveal that there is a positive relationship between conflict resolution strategies and organizational performance of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study therefore recommends among others that tertiary institutions should pay attention to conflict management and resolve conflicts more at the infant stage rather than allowing it to escalate and affect productivity of the organization.</em></p> EBHOTE OSEREMEN PH. D, AKPAIDA PAX ANOGHENE Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 THE NIGERIAN YOUTH AND THE ATTAINMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs): DEALING WITH THE ROADBLOCKS <p><em>Youths are considered as a great thinker, innovators and drivers of change whose crucial roles in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) cannot be ignored.</em><em> Sustainable development comes with rapid/increase growth, and improvement in every aspect or sectors of the society which the youth must be actively involve towards achieving this agenda. Their relevance cannot be jeopardized in the society. This paper therefore examines the involvement of Nigerian youth vis-à-vis the roadblocks to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria. The paper adopts the Gabriel Almond’s structural-functionalism as the theoretical framework. The use of secondary source of data collection was relied upon and discussion was achieved through the use of content analysis. It is observed that as laudable as the dream of SDGs is towards the youth, there are some inherent and inhibiting factors such as unemployment, lack of quality education, non-continuity of government programs, poverty, youth restiveness, among other factors that impedes the attainment of the SDGs laudable projects in Nigeria among the youths in the country. The paper concludes that attainment of the SDGs 2030 agenda in Nigeria depends largely on the extent to which deliberate policy initiatives are evolved by government to eliminate the factors that prevent youth from participating meaningfully in the decision making and implementation. The paper recommends improvement to quality education, creation of more employment opportunities, improvement in governance, mutual collaboration between the rural and urban society etc. as a viable measure that can enhance youth participation and the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2030.</em></p> OLUWASUJI CLEMENT OLAWOLE, PHD, OGUNYEWO AKINWALE OLAYEMI Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AS A CHALLENGE TO DEMOCRATIC CONSOLIDATION IN NIGERIA <p><em>Democracy as a system of government has waded off competition from other systems of government and has assumed ascendancy as a top political system in the world. In Nigeria, democratic system of governance has been in existence for the past two decades. For this system to be consolidated, all the relevant stakeholders must get involve for it to evolve seamlessly. One of the critical stakeholders in a democratic set up are youths;</em><em> their numbers, strength, dynamism, and creativity are valuable resources which, if properly harnessed can reposition a nation on the path of social, economic, political progress and development. Despite these enormous advantages, Nigerian youths have been marginalized and atomized in the Nigeria political space. Using secondary sources of data through critical review of literature, the paper argues that, the monetization of the political process by political parties where nomination forms are bought at exorbitant rates has rendered the youth inactive. They lack financial muscles so required for effective participation. The inability of those in leadership positions to create job opportunities has made things more challenging for the youth; this has increased poverty rate, thereby encouraging youth restiveness, social unrest, political thuggery and all forms of militancy in our democracy. </em><em>The paper recommends among others that for our democracy to be consolidated, the problem of youth empowerment must be adequately addressed. This can be achieved through strengthening our political recruitment machinery to de-emphasize money politics and embrace a political culture that is interested in featuring those with clear vision and mission. This will ensure that only those who demonstrate the capacity for good governance find their way into government.</em></p> MUHAMMAD ABDULLAHI, BEMSHIMA SAKA Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 WOMEN PARTICIPATIONS AND ELECTORAL PROCESS IN NIGERIA: ITS IMPLICATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY <p><em>The study examined women participation in electoral process in Nigeria and how it impacts on the country’s democracy. In general, gender discrimination has emerged as a significant global concern that has sparked a variety of debates among authors on the subject of women's participation and its effects. Liberal Feminist Theory and Gender Streaming Theory served as the theoretical foundation and analytical framework of this study.&nbsp;Data were collected from secondary sources and subjected to qualitative content analysis. It was discovered that a number of factors, including zoning formula, discrimination in law and customs, intimidation, thuggery, and violence, lack of financial support, and women's perspectives on politics, among others, had impacted on women's participation in Nigeria’s electoral process.&nbsp;It was further demonstrated that these encumbrances make it difficult for them to vote and this undermines Nigeria's ability to maintain a viable democracy. The paper sugges<strong>ts</strong> that the current policy on women's empowerment be changed to take into account the current situation. Additionally, this approach places a great priority on hiring women for positions of authority in order to maintain a democratic government for growth and development in Nigeria.</em></p> IDREES MAHMUD GANA , YUSUFU AHMED AUDU Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 EFFECTS OF BANDITRY ON WOMEN AND CHILDREN EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF FUNTUA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KATSINA STATE 2018-2022 <p><em>The paper examined the effects of banditry on women and children education. Some parts of Katsina State in the last few years have witnessed a frequent attack by bandits. Women and children are the most vulnerable since they are left with additional burden to provide for their children domestic need and their education. The human need theory propounded by Maslow, Burton and Marshal is adopted as the framework of analysis. The theory argues that people need to meet their needs and unavailability of the means to meet the needs of individuals or group is what lead to violence. The qualitative method of data collection was used through in-depth interview and result indicates that banditry has certainly affect the women and children education; husbands were killed and some were displaced, some young Fulani girls were forced to marry bandits in exchange of protection, many commercial farmers could longer afford their children education because banditry drained their economy. It is recommended that government should initiate intelligent community policing so that the perpetrators could be fished out easily.</em></p> Tukur Bello, Muhammad Reza Suleiman Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100 A REVIEW OF MULTI MODAL TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE <p><em>Lagos, Nigeria is home to a growing population of many millions of inhabitants, making it a very large city. In spite of this large population, the city has struggled to meet the demand<strong>s</strong> of the citizens for reliable and efficient transportation services. This paper reviews the current state of multimodal transportation and development in Lagos with the view of discussing the challenges present and the potential for future improvements. The transportation Landscape in Lagos is dominated by private vehicles, commercial motorbikes, and mass transit system such as buses. These transportation modes have been struggling to keep up with the growing demand, leading to congestion and safety issues. In addition, multimodal transportation in the city is limited due to a lack of maintenance of the existing modes of transportation, poor connectivity, and inadequate services to cater for the huge commuters. The study adopted a desk top review of several related and relevant literatures and secondary data was obtained for relevant data collection and proper review, with references used and adjusted appropriately in its list. The Review finds that the development of multimodal transportation infrastructure in Lagos is hindered by the lack of financial resources, legal and regulatory frameworks, and institutional capacity. Other challenges include poor water quality, environmental challenge, Parking challenges, as well as limited access to and affordability of public transportation services. The review explores possible strategies for improving the current system, such as investing in public transport infrastructures and services, developing a coordinated public transport system, and introducing new technologies such as autonomous vehicles. This research highlights the need for a comprehensive and integrated strategy to improve multimodal transportation and development in Lagos. The review suggests that the concerned government, organizations and citizens of Lagos need to work together to increase access to reliable and efficient transportation for better service delivery. </em></p> ADENIRAN TOLULOPE Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) Thu, 29 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0100