Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development <p><strong>Zamfara Journal of Politics and Development </strong>is a Bi-annual double-blind peer-reviewed and research driven journal devoted to providing intellectual platform for the dissemination of empirical and critical research in the areas of Political Science, Political Theory, Political Economy, Development Studies, Comparative Politics, Public Policy, International Relations, Security and Strategic Studies and other related areas. The Journal is a Publication of the Department of Political Science, Federal University Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> (Abdulrahman Adamu) (Yunisa Hassan) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 ANALYTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ATTRIBUTES OF NIGERIAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS THE TRANSFORMATION OF AFRICAN UNION <p>The African continent has benefited immensely from Afrocentric nature of Nigerian foreign policy. This has invariably added to the reasons behind the successful transformation of Organization of African Unity (OAU) to African Union (AU). Having checked through the existing literature, it was observed that limited studies were found on Nigerian foreign policy’s contribution towards the transformation of the continental organization in Africa. The study’s findings have revealed the following attributes possessed by Nigerian foreign policy as one of the factors that aided the transformation of the continental organization in Africa. These attributes include: leadership role, economic-existing role, democratic-setting role, peace and security role, population factor, decolonization and anti-apartheid role. As part of the academic contribution of the study to the existing knowledge, the study indicated that Nigeria and its citizens tend to benefit more if its foreign policy tailors in such a way that would have a direct positive impact on Africa as a continent. Thus, the study concludes that Nigeria would have more influence in the continent particularly during decision making on Africa’s matter, if she allows her fellow African countries to benefit from her favourable foreign policy. This study adopts functionalism theory to describe the possibility of mutual benefits when countries come together through functional cooperation to address common issues. This work is a qualitative study that utilizes both primary and secondary sources of data. Eight respondents were interviewed from different Nigerian government parastatals and higher institutions. The interview data was analyzed thematically with the aid of Nvivo-10.</p> MURITALA DAUDA, PhD Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN THE KOGI STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, 2011 – 2015 <p>The manpower resources available to any nation constitute the most important assets of that nation. It determines whether or not the organisation is going to be successful and achieve its objective. It is in consideration of this that every organization places great emphasis on human training and manpower development. The main objective of this study is to appraise and analyse the conception, implementation and effectiveness of manpower development efforts of the Kogi State Civil Service Commission from 2011 to 2015. The study utilises both the qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. This included structured questionnaire and documentary sources such as published and unpublished materials and internet sources. The data from the questionnaire were analysed using simple statistics technique. A sample of 100 staff comprising of senior, intermediate and junior staff of the Kogi State Civil Service Commission were used for this research. The paper adopted the structural functional theory, which presupposes that a system is a compendium of structures performing different functions for the purpose of optimal performance of the system by enhancing solidarity and stability. The dysfunction of one structure ultimately paralyses the other parts of the system. It was found out that workers in the Kogi State Civil Service were not given adequate incentives; also, little funds were made available for training of personnel. The research therefore recommends that manpower training and retraining be encouraged through adequate funding. It is also recommended that promotions and proper placements of staff be accorded priority.</p> Abraham Musa Peter, PhD, Bosede Betty Julius Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 POLITICAL TRANSITION AND THE CHALLENGES TO DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA <p>There is no doubt that the greatest challenges and thus impediments to national development have been systemic dysfunction and instability. Attempts at political transition and thus stability in the democratization process in Nigeria seemed to have failed over the years. The democratic system seems to have been put to the test due to threat from politicians most notably in the abuse of the constitution and disrespect for democratic tenets, two important structures for democratic stability and governance. This paper is an attempt to examine the nature and character of political transition of the fourth republic and the consequent constitutional abuse by politicians during years of democratic practice and their seeming implications on the survival of democracy in Nigeria today. The study adopts the Liberal Democratic Theory upon which the tenets of democratic system and principles are founded, and data was gathered from documents and other relevant secondary sources. The paper recommends, among others, that internal democracy must be respected at party level in the choice of candidates and that both the legislative and executive organs of the government must respect rule of law and obey constitutional provisions.</p> Yusuf Musa, Ph.D Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL CRISIS AND FAILED PROJECTS IN NIGERIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AJAOKUTA STEEL MILL <p>The Ajaokuta Steel Mill has remained comatose for decades with attendant consequences on the country’s industrial sector. The wisdom behind the establishment of the Steel Mill was to bring about viable economic development and drastically reduce unemployment in the country. Unfortunately, forty years after the Ajaokuta steel mill came into being, the company is yet to commence operation while physical infrastructure there have become dilapidated with no concerted efforts made so far by the government to revamp the steel company. It is against the backdrop of the foregoing that this paper investigated the socio-economic effects of industrial crisis and failed projects in Nigeria with particular focus on the Ajaokuta Steel Mill. The paper which utilized key informant interview and secondary sources of data, applied the elite theory of public policy as a basis to understand the influence of governance on the state of the company. &nbsp;The study reveals that while the Ajaokuta Steel Company is seemingly beset with internal problems it can nonetheless, be revived. One of the greatest problems is that those Nigerians who have benefitted from the corruption in Ajaokuta would not allow it to function. This position is essential and primary to the international economic political angle associated with the reviving of the Steel Mill. In other words, the interest of those members of the governing elites who are currently benefiting from the comatose company is primary to the will to revive the Steel Mill. The annual budgetary allocation to the company as stated in this study informs this assertion.&nbsp; Thus, this position is different from the views of studies such as Oluwole, (2018), Al-Amin, (2013), Ohuoma, (2019) and Eromo, (2019). The paper recommends that governments at all levels in Nigeria should ensure continuity in policy implementation to curtail wastages, especially in the country’s public sector. It further recommends that over dependence on foreign interests and investors to turn around the fortunes of the Ajaokuta Steel Mill should be minimized.</p> Abdulrahman Adamu, Aminu Idris, Fadeyi Taofiq James Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 THE IMPACT ANALYSIS OF THE CONVENTION ON THE ERADICATION OF ALL FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) TREATY ON WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIAN POLITICS, 2011 - 2020 <p>Women play a very vital role in the growth of the society and Nigerian women are not an exception. Though Nigeria is a signatory to the Convention on the Eradication of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), there have been little awareness about it and its implementation in Nigeria. This study attempts an impact analysis of the Treaty on the Convention on the Eradication of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) on women participation in Nigerian politics, 2011 – 2020 using David Mitrany Functionalism Theory. The study is content descriptive and uses qualitative secondary sources of data with tables illustrating a selection of women representation at the federal and state levels during the period under review. There is a gap in literature on the necessity of passing the CEDAW Treaty into law in Nigeria. The passage of this law is the key to achieving an all[1]inclusiveness in Nigerian politics. This study further examined ways that women participation in politics can be enhanced. These includes a multi-pronged approach which cuts across, continuous re-orientation on the patriarchal nature of the society, rise in societal and political awareness for women’s participation in politics and governance from the grassroots to national level, and diversifying the pool of female candidates and building of female leaders. There is also the need for a strong, persistent, lobbying by gender-based civil societies and non-governmental organizations to the Political Parties, Executive and Legislative arms of Government and the international community until the Treaty is made a national law.</p> ATTU VERA FELICITAS Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 SOCIAL INCLUSION AND ACCESS TO EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMMES FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES IN GUSAU METROPOLIS, ZAMFARA STATE <p>Social exclusion, particularly among persons living with disabilities (PLWD), is a significant development concern, particularly in developing nations. It is believed that 9% of adult Nigerians have trouble seeing, hearing, communicating, walking, or caring for themselves. They face more stigma, discrimination, and lack of access to economic opportunities and other essential social services as a result of their physical impairment than the general population. This study argues that, at a time when both the government and the private sector are struggling to address Nigeria's high unemployment rate, more opportunities in the area of skill acquisition should be made available to people with disabilities so that they can become self-sufficient and contribute to the development of the society. The sample size was made up of 30 people living with disabilities. Respondents were chosen using purposeful and snowball sampling procedures. In-depth interview was used as the primary instrument of data collection. Qualitative data generated was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Findings from the study indicated that PLWD did not have access to empowerment programmes due to lack of access to transportation, education, negative attitude towards PLWD, lack of opportunities and information regarding the availability of empowerment programmes. The study recommends that PLWD should form associations in other to dialogue with the government on their needs. Government and non-governmental organizations should set up skill acquisition centres very close to PLWD for easy access.</p> Ugba Dajo, PhD, David Bauchi Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 DISCOURSE ON GOVERNANCE AND NIGERIAN NATIONAL INTEGRATION: DISSECTING THE EMERGING POLICY ISSUES <p>The quest to have an all-inclusive government devoid of marginalization, sentiment, ethnic bigotry, and to promote unity among the citizens led to the enactment of the Federal Character Principle as a National integrative mechanism, and National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) in order to achieve this target. The paper adopts the functionalist theory in the explanation of the national integration question in Nigeria. This paper present an evaluation of these national integrative mechanisms of the Nigerian government and examines the issues militating against their effective implementations. Thus, to achieve the aim of this paper journal articles, books, and conference papers were consulted and used, while the content analysis method was adopted. The paper, calls for the strengthening of these National Integration measures of the government and stresses the need to adhere to the tenants of these policies and programmes by the stakeholders to achieve its full potential.</p> Timothy Onimisi, Shehu Sadat Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL THUGGARY ON THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE <p>This paper is set to critically examine the daunting effects of political thuggery on political development in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna state with a view to providing pragmatic solutions to the menace. To achieve this, Structural Theory of Conflict, particularly the liberal version expounded by Galtung (1990), Ross (1993) and Scarborough (1998) is employed to analyse the main theme of the paper. The study found that the activities of political thugs in Zaria Local Government Area of Kaduna state have no doubt impeded the socio-political development of the study area. This was reflected on how almost all the pillars upon which the social development of the study area was underpinned were affected. Not only that, it has also impinged on the sanctity of the electoral process by undermining the legitimacy of elected candidates and election results thereby threatening democratic stability in the study area. The study also found that much effort has been made by community leaders as well as government officials and agencies through the implementation of various programmes with a view to checking the rising incidences of political thuggery and to prevent their possible future re-emergence. The findings revealed that the measures put in place were barely effective due to factors such as undue political interference by political elites (particularly those from the ruling party), inadequate funding, lack of modern communication gadgets, and logistics challenges. The study therefore, recommend among other things, that political elites/politicians and political parties should know that, winning and losing are the two features of any election, so, the employment of foul means such as political thuggery in a bid to win elections is against the tenants of liberal democracy.</p> DR. MUHAMMAD AMINU KWASAU, MUNIR ABUBAKAR MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 VOTE-BUYING AND THE ELECTORAL PROCESS IN NIGERIA: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES, 2015 - 2019 <p>It is an established fact that vote-buying has become a dominant factor and an alarming phenomenon in Nigeria’s electoral process. Its trends and challenges in the country’s electoral process have become a worrisome issue. Vote[1]buying has also become an accepted norm in Nigeria’s political activities and threatens her readiness to embrace good democratic governance. Buying for political posts is left for rich individual politicians due to the huge amount of money involved in the preparation for elective offices. The theoretical framework adopted in this paper is the clientalism theory because it explains the linkage between Nigeria’s electoral process and vote-buying, focusing on the 2015 and the 2019 general elections. In spite of the electoral laws and the INEC’s stance on vote-buying, the act has gradually become a regular phenomenon. This makes it imperative in this study to explore the ugly phenomenon of vote-buying in Nigeria’s electoral process via its challenges for free, fair, credible and acceptable elections. The paper adopts the documentary method for gathering data from secondary sources and recommends that Nigeria needs to develop strong institutions and adopt sound measures that are politically neutral to address the phenomenon of vote[1]buying in the country. Therefore, addressing the menace of vote-buying through apolitical and neutral agencies can go a long way in nipping in the bud of electoral irregularities that characterized politics and electoral process for a long time.</p> Musa Magaji, Umar Alhaji Musa Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 VOTE BUYING AND ELECTION ADMINISTRATION IN KOGI STATE: A REVIEW OF THE 2019 GENERAL ELECTION IN LOKOJA METROPOLIS <p>The menace of vote buying in elections in Nigeria is one that cannot be overemphasized. This is because elections are conducted every 4 years and if votes are been bought in each and every election, it raises questions about the integrity of any elections conducted in the country. Kogi state is not left out. This study assessed the 2019 general elections in Lokoja, Kogi state with the main aim of understanding the causes of vote buying and its impact on the credibility of elections. The theory adopted by the paper is the rational choice theory which shows the extent certain persons go to gain and retain political power. Primary and secondary sources of data were used as methods of collecting data. While questionnaires were distributed to get primary source, secondary sources were derived from books, journals, newspapers, internet information etc. The study discovered the existence of vote buying in the start due to high poverty rate and low political orientation and the consequence of vote buying is that it erodes the credibility of elections which invariably impedes on the growth of democracy. The study recommends that the electoral umpire needs to educate the electorates prior to any election on the dangers of vote buying and all other election malpractices.</p> BALOGUN, Osebi Sophia, IKHELOA, Sarah Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 FOREIGN AID AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (LDC): NIGERIA AT GLANCE <p><em>Foreign aid has continued to be an important source of external financing to most less developed countries particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa.&nbsp; &nbsp;It&nbsp; has been observed by some researchers that foreign aid has not in any way improved the economic condition of the less developed countries,&nbsp; others are of the opinion that without foreign aid, the level of development attained by the less developed countries would not have been attained. &nbsp;Other researchers take a middle position as they believe that foreign aid can both bring about development and otherwise to the less developed countries depending on the viability of the economic policies of the country. This study, therefore, makes use of a historical method of analysis to examine whether foreign aid has a positive or negative effect on Nigeria’s economic development from 1999 to 2021.Dependency theory is used to show why the Less Developed Countries (Nigeria included) are underdeveloped to the extent that they have to rely upon aid from Industrialized Nations.&nbsp; The finding of the research shows that foreign aid has not contributed much in the development of Nigeria, and therefore, it is recommended among others that&nbsp;the political leaders should formulate viable economic policies that will make it possible for the foreign aid to be of benefit.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> Isiyaku Adamu, Zasha Tersoo Zasha PhD, Suleiman Umar Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION POLICY IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL SERVICE: A REVIEW <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span lang="EN-US">Attempts to capture the diverse nature of the country in the employment distribution in the civil service and to give the citizens some sense of belonging remain a big task in the Nigerian civil service. This paper reviews the causes of disparity in the employment distribution in the Nigerian civil service. The paper consulted Federal Character Commission, academics, non-governmental organizations, and unemployed graduates to ensure wide representation, and these were supported with scholarly articles to arrive at some critical findings. The research revealed that disparity continues to ravage the employment distribution in the Nigerian civil service because of the weak recruitment and selection process, absence of reliable data of employment, political influence, and bureaucratic influence, as well as conflict of interest. Finally, the paper recommended the provision of a valuable blueprint/guide in the employment distribution in the Nigerian civil service.&nbsp;</span></p> Shehu Sadat, Timothy Onimisi Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 AN ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR EDUCATION IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA IN THE CONTEXT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC <p>Despite decades of heightened calls for global cooperation presented by the advocates of globalisation, power asymmetry between the Global North and Global South continues to define the policy agenda on education to the detriment of Sub-Saharan Africa. In this regard, Africa has emerged as lacking agency in policymaking on issues of global concern such as health and education. Emerging evidence related to COVID-19 response has exposed deep rooted systemic vulnerabilities amongst developing economies. This study is guided by critical globalisation and interdependency theories. Using desk review method, it interrogates the effectiveness of global efforts, with a particular bias on Global Partnership for Education –a multi-stakeholder partnership and funding initiative that attempt to mobilize international supportfor education in developing countries. It particularly assesses interventions with a focus on vulnerable children and youths. It also examines the effectiveness of assistance accorded to governments in the South as an attempt to improve on dispensation ofequity in learning through strengthening their education systems in the times of COVID-19. The study questions why, little, if any, impact on education has been realized -despite the establishment of the GPE evidenced by continued high levels of dependency on solutions emanating from the Global North. The findings suggest that the speed with which GPE responded to the challenge has enhanced the net gain of its commitment beyond its face value. It also established that timing of a response is a more critical factor than the intervention itself. Thus, whenever there were delays in processing GPE, the amount expended ends up recording lesser successes than the timely meager sum invested. However, agency and adequacy have not matched the success of the timing. We recommend broadening of SSA countries’ agency on interventions that target their citizenry.</p> Lawan Abba Babamaragana, Wilson Muna, PhD Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 INSTITUTIONS AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF THE RAW MATERIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL <p>The world system not only typifies the web of relations between countries but also indicates the topologies of countries using developmental indices. As a developing economy, Nigeria is richly blessed with human and natural resource yet it has remained a mono-cultural economy with excessive dependence on oil. The galaxies of and availability of raw materials notwithstanding, the Nigerian state relies on the importation of industrial raw materials for her local industries which has not only affected the level of industrialization but has further put the&nbsp; Nigerian economy in a disadvantage position. In a bid to address the challenges and to promote local content, the Raw Material Research and Development Council (RMRDC) was established in 1978 to serve as a springboard and catalyst for promoting the research, development and utilization of raw material resources in Nigeria. Hence this paper is an attempt to interrogate the role and contributions of the Raw Material Research and Development Council in promoting economic growth and development in Nigeria. It is a desk research and it employs the institutional theory as its theoretical framework. It is the position of this paper that the Raw Material Research and Development Council has contributed in several ways in promoting economic growth and development in Nigeria. It also identifies poor funding, inadequate infrastructure, political interference, incessant strike by Nigerian University lecturers who are key partners of the RMRDC amongst others constitute major limitations to the organization. In the final analysis the paper recommends amongst others the need to encourage research and development by ensuring adequate funding of the RMRDC.</p> Ehimiaghe, Ehi Valerie, Adejoh Sunday Ph.D Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 THE ROLE OF ENDLESS POLITICS IN THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA: THE NIGERIAN CASE <p>There is an agreement in scholarship that a major issue in Africa’s development challenge is the weakness of the state in Africa. While the colonial origin of the state has been the major culprit in that weakness, the political elite in Africa have not done enough to make the state in Africa responsive to the challenges and desires of the people. A major challenge relate to the continuation of politics post elections to the extent that policy and administration are compromised. Whereas politics and policy/administration are closely related even intertwined in many cases, they ought to be clearly demarcated in other not to jeopardize the collective or national interest. Utilising desk search method and public administration framework, this paper seeks to revisit the development challenge in Africa and locates the problem of the weakness of its institutions, policy, and administration in the self-defeating deployment of the instrument of politics. Our finding is that this is the case in Africa generally and we recommend that African governments should observe the politics/administration distinction in other to achieve development</p> STEPHEN OKHONMINA, EDITH NKECHI OGBUAGU Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 ATTAINING A SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF KURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KANO STATE (2016 - 2020) <p>This study assesses the impact of agricultural development policy on rural development in Kura Local Government Area of Kano State (2016 - 2019). Methodologically the study employs both primary and secondary sources of data. The study undertakes a survey using questionnaires, specialized interview and personal observations. The simple percentage analysis tool (SPA) was applied in analyzing the data. The study adopts incremental theory of decision making as theoretical premise. The major findings from the study revealed that there is a direct connection between agricultural development and rural development. That the agricultural development programmes enhanced the provision of agricultural inputs to the rural farmers, improved accessed to agricultural credits, enhanced the provision of socio-economic amenities, fertilizers and other modern agricultural instruments. This improves farmers’ agricultural output, income earnings, living standard, employment generation and facilitated rural development in the area. This enhanced the quality of rural life, economy and development of Kura population as well as per capita income and output of Kano state at large. The agricultural development programmes enhanced integrated rural development in Kura Local Government Area. The study recommends that there is the need to upgrade or rehabilitate rural infrastructures. Encourage integrated approach to agricultural and rural development through systematic or multidimensional strategies for improving the life of rural communities through provision of adequate socio-economic amenities. Effective implementation and monitoring of agricultural development programmes. Provision of adequate fund and government attention to rural agricultural development projects. This will invariably help in sustaining agricultural and rural development that can facilitate economic growth and development in Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> Nasir Ahmad Sarkin Dori, Yakubu Abubakar Kantudu Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE HOST COMMUNITIES IN NIGER STATE <p>Institution of any type, formal or informal, interacts with one another to influence cultural, political and socio-economic stability, the well-being of the people among others core mandates where they operate. It is in line with the above assertion that tertiary institutions are established to provide community development of their host communities as one of their three core mandates. This study adopts institutional theory to examine the impact of six (6) tertiary institutions (IBB University Lapai, Federal University of Technology, Minna, College of Education, Minna, Niger state Polytechnic, Zungeru, Federal College of Education, Kontagora and Federal Polytechnic, Bida) on their host communities in Niger state. The study further adopts qualitative method using interviews and content analysis. The research reveals that the institutions have significantly improved the economic well-being of their host communities through knowledge-driven, business transactions, and lease of property among others. Despite these economic gains, the establishment of institutions has subjected households in the host communities to untold economic hardship as a result of the expropriation of their ancestral farmland. The establishment also led to high cost of living, scarcity of shelter, food, transportation, among other things. In the light of the above, the paper recommends the collaboration of the Niger State government with financial institutions to facilitate empowerment of the community members whose farmlands were expropriated. It also recommends provision of adequate public transport and housing to tame exploitation of staff and students by the landlords and private transportation companies.</p> Abu Idris, Prof. Victor A. Kolawole, Abdulmalik Abdulkadir, Maichibi Joel Haruna, Fatima Z. Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100 IMPACT ANALYSIS OF HYDRO ELECTRICITY DAMS ON THE HAPPINESS OF THE HOST-COMMUNITIES IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA <p>In Nigeria, violence, theft and vandalisation of infrastructure are common phenomenon. Some people tend to destroy them with little or no provocation not minding the fact that they are in place to address public needs. In line with this tendency, the study therefore, examined the Hydroelectricity dam host communities in Niger State to determine if they are happy or not. The study used concept of utility as theoretical framework and employedPropensity Score Matching (PSM) method using treatment and control groups as units of analysis. The findings revealed that the Hydroelectricity Dam host communities are less happy by 33 percent. The study therefore, recommends training programmes be put in place to improve human resource skills and production efficiency and concludes that policy focus should not only be targeted at production outcomes but also to consider peoples happiness.&nbsp;</p> Musa Salihu Ewugi, Habiba Mohammed Bello Copyright (c) 2022 Author(s) Sat, 13 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0100