IMPLICATION OF FARMERS AND HERDERS CONFLICT ON HUMAN SECURITY: CASE STUDY OF TSAFE LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA
Keywords:Farmer-herder’s conflict, human security, conflict management, cattle rustling, grazing reserve
Since the return of Nigeria to democratically elected government in 1999 over 100,000 citizens mostly in rural areas have been killed and hundreds of thousands have been displaced in conflict involving farmers and herders. Intensive agricultural activities and the rising density in population have put pressure on land which is natural resources that farmers and herders compete for in order to sustain their means of livelihood. Desert encroachment, soil erosion, environmental degradation, and proliferation of small arms and light weapons have been advanced by scholars as the factors responsible for farmer-herder’s conflict in Nigeria. Thus this study sets out to assess the nature, factors and the impact of farmer-herder’s conflict on human security in Nigeria. This study adopts survey research design. The sample selected for the study consist of 190 respondents from the study area. The number (sampling size) was computed in line with the Taro Yamane (2007) formula. The sample was drawn using purposive sampling of three villages (communities where farmers and herders co-dwell). Primary data were obtained through close ended questionnaire with likert 5 points rating scale. Data was presented using frequency and percentage. Arithmetic mean was used in analysing the variables from the questionnaire weighing the degree of response. The study finds out that climate change has effect on the quantity and quality of natural resources available to both the farmers and herdsmen, hence the cause of conflict. Blockage of designed cattle grazing route and water points by farmers and other land users hinders assess of herdsmen to essential means of livestock existences and this serve as trigger to the conflict. This study recommends that government and enforce gazette grazing routes and reserves for herdsmen and earmark land for farmers in a way that conflict can be minimised.
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